Hydrocarbon lubricating oils have dielectric constants that typically range from 2.1 to 2.4, depending on the viscosity of the oil, the oil’s density, the relative paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic content and the oil’s additive package. Dielectric Fluids are replacing standard mineral oils in both stationary and mobile motor cooling applications because of their exceptional stability, cleanliness and heat transfer characteristics. Where the correct oil is in use, an increase in the dielectric constant of a new oil with the value of previous batches of new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants or a change in oil chemistry. Breakdown voltage is a minimum voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down and … As stated previously, the dielectric constant is a measure of the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. Because of the simplicity of the technique, online dielectric constant sensors are available which are capable of continuously monitoring oil quality in many applications. As the temperature increases, the density decreases and hence the dielectric constant of the oil also decreases. When dielectrics are placed in an electric field, practically no current flows in them because, unlike metals, they have no loosely bound, or free, electrons that may drift through the material. Measuring the dielectric constant of an oil can give important information on oil quality. For nonhydrocarbon-based oils, dielectric constants will vary based on polarity and polarizability. Any increase in the bulk dielectric constant is undesirable and indicates the presence of some type of contaminant or a change in chemistry of the oil, such as oxidation. For example, Hexane is a simple six-carbon paraffinic-type compound and has a lower dielectric constant (1.8865) than six-carbon naphthenic cyclohexane (2.0243) and six-carbon aromatic benzene (2.285). Determining oil quality usually requires complex laboratory equipment to measure the viscosity, refractive index, density, base number (BN), acid number (AN), water content, metals (additives and wear metals), color and flash point. It is a silicone-based and non-conductive type of grease to protect electrical connectors from corrosion, moisture, and dirt. They can be also defined as a substance that does not allow the flow of charges through it permits them to exert electric field and force. With dynamic stress the presence of impurities has almost no effect on dielectric strength of transformer oil. The oil used in the transformer is a key element to check the physical condition of the unit. Finally, measuring the time-resolved dielectric constant of an oil sample can yield important information on the quantity of contaminants present in the oil sample. Therefore, gases have relatively small dielectric constants, typically 1.00xx, where xx represents typical variation between gas dielectric constants in the third and fourth decimal places. The dielectric constant is a simple number that is the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. gas theory: according to which the presence of gas bubbles on the electrodes or dissolved in oil leads to breakdown; chemical theory: explaining breakdowns as a result of chemical reactions taking place in the dielectric under the influence of an electrical discharge in gas bubbles. There are three ways/stages of vacuum drying of transformer oil: Globecore GmbH Edewechter Landstraße 173 Put simply, a dielectric breakdown voltage test is a measure of the electrical stress that an insulating oil can withstand without breakdown. Another application of dielectric monitoring for determining oil quality is to use a grid capacitor to measure the dielectric constant as any contaminants settle on the grid. The rate-of-change of the dielectric constant will depend on the physical properties of the oil that affect the settling rate of the contaminants, such as density and viscosity, as well as the oil’s additive package, with more highly additized oils showing a smaller rate-of-change, because it will take longer for contaminants, particularly water, to settle out under these circumstances. Dielectric grease is used to disturb the flow of electric current with the property of good lubricants. Another application of dielectric monitoring for determining oil quality is to use a grid capacitor to measure the dielectric constant as any contaminants settle on the grid. Breakdown voltage is measured by observing at what voltage, sparking strands between two electrodes immersed in the oil, separated by a specific gap. Mineral Oil has been used as a … Therefore, commutation and lightning strikes pose  relatively low risk. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. A theory is adopted that the mechanism of breakdown at dynamic (pulse) stress and at prolonged exposure has different nature. Studies have identified direct contact, liquid phase … A dielectric material is one that has poor conductivity, but an ability to hold a charge with an applied electric field. Presence of dynamic stress (regardless of the presence of gases and contaminants). Also, the dielectric grease blocks moisture, preventing corrosion in the process. Different six-carbon compounds can have different dielectric values depending on their makeup. Some typical dielectric constants are shown in Table 1. The typical decrease in dielectric constant for hydrocarbon oils is about 0.0013 or 0.05 percent per degree Celsius. 37 Both carbide and oxide were identified on the recast layer formed on the samples in water-in-oil emulsion. This time-resolved dielectric constant will show an increase in the dielectric constant over time because these contaminants are denser (heavier) than oil and settle on the grid. It is used in many applications including home electrical work, vehicle wiring, and automotive tune-up. It is an expression of the extent to which a material concentrates electric flux, and is the electrical equivalent of relative magnetic permeability. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the … This article discusses static dielectric constants that are below electric field frequencies of 106 Hz. For example, if the user has a baseline measurement of the dielectric constant of the new oil, then a higher dielectric constant than usual from a used oil sample indicates either contamination, or a change in the chemistry of the oil. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. In particular, changes greater than 0.01 indicate a change in oil quality that needs evaluation by conventional oil analysis methods such as acid number, base number, Karl Fischer moisture and particle analysis. Dielectric fluids that have higher dielectric constants are often used in high voltage capacitors to help prevent corona discharge and increase the capacitance. Typical specifications are: flash point 140 °C or greater, pour point −40 °C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. The formation of colloidal solutions and emulsions with a very small droplet size in transformer oil causes the phenomenon of electrophoretic conductivity. The hydrocarbons chosen in the example are simple linear paraffins. Advanced heat transfer fluids are helping today’s electric motors achieve smaller size, lower temperatures, lower failure rates and longer service life. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The density of gases is about one thousandth the density of solids and liquids. Generally, polydimethylsiloxane is used in silicone oil, … used in the machine, However, FTIR typically requires an expensive instrument and expert interpretation. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. It is very often equated with breakdown voltage, but their numerical values are not equal. Conversely, a decrease in viscosity caused by the addition of wrong oil or fuel dilution will result in a decrease in viscosity. Mineral oil is used inside electrical transformers as a fluid dielectric and to assist in cooling. The breakdown process is also greatly influenced by dissolved gases. These cookies do not store any personal information. Dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil. The mineral-based oil like transformer oil is frequently used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well as electrical properties. Hansterfer’s EDM Dielectric Oil Make a good impression on potential customers, and eliminating the smoky, smelly, kerosene based EDM oil is an easy way to clean up your image, and improve your bottom line. Any vegetable oil might work, depending on the voltage. Dielectric liquids are … It is very often equated with breakdown voltage, but their numerical values are not equal. Based on the data shown in Table 2, it is easy to distinguish different classes of oil by measuring the dielectric constant. The dielectric oil -movability quicklook provides a wellsite indication of oil flushing. Dielectric constants at these frequencies are called static because the dielectric constant of materials shows virtually no frequency dependence in this frequency region. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. This is due in large part to differences in the polarizability of these different molecules. Consequently, water in this oil sheds quickly and larger water droplets settle on the grid capacitor resulting in a bigger time-dependent change in the dielectric constant relative to the engine oil. Oil Dielectric AC test sets provide replicable, accurate measurement of breakdown voltage of insulating oils used in electrical equipment. Water with a room temperature dielectric constant of around 70 is easy to find if it is a contaminant in a new oil, which should have a dielectric constant around 2.1 to 2.4. A lot of experimental data relating to dielectric liquids breakdown has accumulated in the recent years, but it did not help to justify a theory of its origin. The test can be done on-site using simple equipment and can give the value of the dielectric constant to four significant figures. A smaller number of molecules per unit volume means that there is less interaction with the electric fields and therefore a decrease in the dielectric constant. Instead, electric polarization occurs. However, the dielectric constant is another important indicator of oil quality that is easy to measure on-site. These small particles do not settle on the grid, but remain suspended in the oil, and consequently do not cause a large change in dielectric constant over time. It does not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil, ethanol, and water. Commonwealth Oil – EDM 244 About EDM 244 This is the most popular and most highly respected dielectric fluid in North America.This is the fluid that first made operators aware that dielectric fluids did not have to be hazardous. The cost of mineral oil, in terms of carbon By contrast, metals have an infinite dielectric constant because they are conductors. It increases dielectric strength. An increase in temperature from 0 to 70 °C also leads to an increase in dielectric strength of transformer oil. Dielectric Breakdown (kV) Dielectric Breakdown (kV) 1mm gap 2mm gap Sheets, FM Global, Norwood, MA, USA 2.5mm gap Gassing Tendency (mm/min) Dissipation Factor 25˚C (%) 90˚C (tan ) 100˚C (%) Corrosive Sulfur ... oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. It is found that water-in-oil emulsion as dielectric results in the formation of a recast layer with great surface roughness, thickness, and micro-hardness compared with a recast layer formed in kerosene and deionized water. Water has an anonymously large and temperature-dependent dielectric constant due to its permanent electric dipole and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding. 0 Comment Report abuse boatman. Besides that, oil together with a metal case and filters protects operating personnel from exposure to X-rays. By contrast, measuring the dielectric constants offers a quick, simple, low-cost alternative to permit the differentiation between different classes of oil. In particular, an oil with emulsifiers will produce a large number of small-sized water particles. Dielectric strength is not a constant value for materials. What is oil dielectric breakdown voltage testing? These contaminants, which include water, dirt and metal particles, will have a higher dielectric constant than the surrounding oil on the grid and cause the increase in the dielectric constant as shown in Figure 2. In this case, the dielectric constant gives information on the presence of contaminants and the condition of the oil’s additive package. One person found this helpful. Dielectric, insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current. At a pulse stress dielectric strength is much higher than at long exposure of voltage with frequency of 50 Hz. Temperature also affects the value of the dielectric constant although the effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon lubrication oils. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. There is another type of dielectric grease that is known as silicone grease or silicone dielectric grease. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. In the last five decades in India, there is a drastic change in production technology. One of the popular dielectric greases to use is Permatex Dielectric Grease and CRC dielectric grease. If such solutions have a low boiling point, the dielectric strength is reduced, if a boiling point is high – it is practically unchanged. At this stage, the removal of dissolved and bound water is performed; slow increase in breakdown voltage due to the removal of bound water. These lightweight, rugged units are designed for field and laboratory use.. Careful draining of dielectric fluid from a glass vessel without mixing allows obtaining oil with high dielectric strength. Reviewed in the United States on May 14, 2016. In general, the value of the dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the applied electric field. At the same time dielectric strength  is a maximum electric field that the insulation can withstand in ideal conditions without breaking down. A low value of BDV indicates presence of moisture content and conducting substances in the oil. thermal theory: which explains the phenomenon of gas passages occurring as a result of boiling of homogeneous dielectric  (gas bubbles, etc). Helpful. Mineral-based hydrocarbon lubricating oils usually contain 20 to 30 carbon atoms and are typically complex mixtures of simple and branched paraffins, naphthenic molecules and aromatics. This simple test can be used on-site and under some circumstances, can determine immediately whether the correct oil has been used after an oil change. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. It was a blend of petroleum oils, and was considered to be a “Less- Flammable” dielectric fluid by both Factory Mutual and UL. There is a direct connection between breakdown voltage and presence of impurities. The only other common technology capable of this is infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. When the dielectric constant of a lubricating oil is measured, changes in the dielectric constant of the used oil compared to new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants, such as water or particles, or changes in chemistry of the oil such as additive depletion or oxidation. Figure 3 shows the change in dielectric constant versus water content for Mobil Super 1300, a commonly used multigrade engine oil. Dielectric grease is some translucent substance that is used to seal electrical conductors to prevent dust, sand, dirt, or other foreign materials from sticking to the conductor. A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. The dielectric constant of a material is a measure of its ability to transmit electrical potential energy. If the electric field intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of bubbles on electrodes. Differences Between Dielectric Grease and Vaseline. 5.0 out of 5 stars Five Stars. As an EDM operator for many years, I witnessed many customers commenting on the disgusting odor bubbling out of the EDM tank. The dielectric oil arrived on time and did just what I expected. If transformer oil is not degassed, and there is a decrease in pressure, its dielectric strength falls. In electrical systems such as capacitors, the effectiveness of dielectrics is measured by their ability to store energy. hbspt.cta.load(3951034, 'c99217f3-09e7-4751-bc3a-7739dac44a0e', {}); Product Unboxing - Hy-Pro Oil Analysis Patch Test Kit, Combining Oil Analysis Tests to Identify the Root Cause of Machine Failures, Case Study: Using Industry 4.0 Techniques for Onsite Oil Analysis, Product Unboxing - The Conserver® Oil Purification Unit, Product Unboxing - AMETEK Spectro Scientific FerroCheck 2100, How to Cost Justify a Lubrication Program, Keeping your Lubrication Program in the Crosshairs. Another important factor in oil … Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Thus by definition, the dielectric constant of a vacuum is exactly 1.0. Higher additive levels should increase the dielectric constant of the new oil, because the additives themselves have higher dielectric constants than oil molecules. Dielectric constant, also called relative permittivity or specific inductive capacity, property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material. When the dielectric constant of a lubricating oil is measured, changes in the dielectric constant of the used oil compared to new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants, such as water or particles, or changes in chemistry of the oil such as additive depletion or oxidation. It is waterproof grease that is prepared by coalescing silicone oil with the use of an appropriate amount of thickener. Save dielectric oil to get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed. Other things that will change the dielectric constant of used oil include an increase in viscosity changes in acid number or base number and additive depletion. + Update your shipping location 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The dielectric strength of transformer oil is also known as the breakdown voltage (BDV) of transformer oil. Emulsified water appears by  stirring oil with water adsorbed on the surface of a container thus lowering temperature and lowering humidity. Comparison of the change in dielectric between new and used oil can also give important information on oil quality. The Dielectric Constant, or permittivity - ε - is a dimensionless constant that indicates how easy a material can be polarized by imposition of an electric field on an insulating material. Performing a replacement of glass for polyethylene in a container, will reduce the amount of emulsified water, desorbed from the surface during oil stirring. Lost a small amount of oil in disassembly. When a dielectric material is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Transformer Oil Dielectric Strength Test The transformer oil or insulating oil is used in transformers as well as some electrical equipment to: insulate the live parts, maintain insulating properties of the material such as paper, winding, etc. Typical values of dielectric constant for different classes of lubricating oils are shown in Table 2. Silicone grease, sometimes called dielectric grease, is a waterproof grease made by combining a silicone oil with a thickener. The density of the oil also influences the dependence of the dielectric constant on temperature - the less dense an oil, the fewer number of oil molecules per unit volume. Using this formulation, silicone grease is a translucent white viscous paste, with exact properties dependent on the type and proportion of the components. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. If humidity level in dielectric fluid is changing and mechanical impurities occur, it immediately begins to experience a decrease in electrical resistance. Clean transformer oil generally contains no water and other impurities, which allows it to have sufficient breakdown voltage (over 60 kV). Oxidized dielectric oil, i.e., mixture of fatty acid and hydrocarbon oil perform most stable machining due to dissolve of suspended debris by the formation of organometallic compounds. Definition: Dielectric is the materials that do not allow electricity to flow within them but show electric effects. The test is performed using a test vessel that has two electrodes mounted in it, with a gap between Dielectric strength of oils is also determined by the dielectric loss tangent or “Tan Delta.” As stated above, dielectric strength of transformer oil is mainly determined by the presence of acids, water, and other contaminates in the oil. The dielectric material supports the electric field but opposes the flow of charges. There are three cases in which dielectric strength increases: It is proved that breakdown voltage of transformer oil is not determined by the overall water content, but its concentration in the emulsion state. This phenomenon is explained by removal of moisture from dielectric liquids, its transition from dissolved state to emulsion and reduction of oil viscosity. It also prevents the conductor from transferring a current between the contact points. Dielectric oil is just mineral oil, but combustion resistant. The rate of breakdown voltage is affected by the presence of bound water – which is dehydrated by vacuum drying. The dielectric constant as a function of temperature for some simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in the figure below. Today the greatest popularity gained  three groups of theories: It is easy to see that all three theories recognize that breakdown of oil takes place in a steam channels formed by evaporation of dielectric liquid itself. This parameter is determined by using flat copper electrodes with rounded edges, 2.5 mm apart. Is oil a dielectric? Dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil. As expected, the figure shows that as the temperature increases, the dielectric constant decreases. You can try some. Its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges. (ii) This time-resolved dielectric constant will show an increase in the dielectric constant over time because these contaminants are denser (heavier) than oil and settle on the grid. It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. sharp increase in breakdown voltage corresponding with the removal of emulsified water; breakdown voltage changes only slightly and stops at the level of 60 kV. Dielectric grease is also known as tune-up grease. Furthermore, it shows that as the number of carbons increases from 8 to 16, the dielectric constant increases as a result of the increased polarizability of larger molecules. Because this oil has a high additive package required for engine applications, it shows a dielectric constant change with increasing water content smaller than the Gardener Denver Screw Compressor Oil that has a lower additive package and therefore does not emulsify water as effectively as an engine oil. The main differences between the two are: Meaning of Dielectric Grease and Vaseline; Dielectric grease refers to a translucent substance that is mainly used to seal and protect electrical conductors against sand, dirt, dust, or other foreign materials. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. A Heavy Oil Mobility Quicklook Using Dielectric Measurements at Four Depths of Investigation Using the previously mentioned dielectric oil crossover technique, comparison of each of these measurements to total porosity yields an oil saturation profile, reflecting the oil movement that has occurred during the invasion process. Oldenburg-Eversten, Deutschland, 26131. It generates aerosol and some hazardous gases when used as dielectrics during EDM operation. I used this to refill a small submersible pump that I took apart. The figure shows the dielectric constant changing from 2.198 to 2.360 over a time period of 180 seconds, or a change of 0.162. hbspt.cta.load(3951034, '0185d019-b885-48b3-81bb-598c6269bb64', {}); Comparison of the bulk dielectric constant of new and used oil can also give useful information in other areas of oil analysis. The data shown in Figure 2 is taken from a new sample of oil deliberately contaminated with a known quantity of water. However, the oil based dielectrics are not environmentally friendly. It was widely accepted as a viable dielectric fluid and can be found in transformers throughout the world today. Dielectric constant and dielectric strength of some Polymers Compound Dielectric Constant, ε (1 MHz) Dielectric Strength (kV/cm) Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) 2.0 - 2.1 600 - 700 Air 1.0 15 - 30 Silicone Oil 2.5 150 Distilled Water 80 65 - 70 The dielectric constant is the ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space. Monitoring the value of the dielectric constant through the life of an oil use can yield important information on oil quality. Vaseline, on the other hand, is a term used to refer to petroleum jelly. The presence of polar, low-boiling and high-boiling substances has almost no effect on electric conductivity and dielectric strength of insulating liquid. Breakdown voltage is a minimum voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down and becoming electrically conductive. Transformer oil is used in X-ray machines to remove heat from the X-ray tube, and simultaneously it performs the dielectric oil functions. The DTS Series provides repeatable and accurate measurements of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils used in electrical equipment. Intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of bubbles on electrodes but out. 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Contaminants and the condition of the popular dielectric greases to use is dielectric. Dynamic stress the presence of impurities has almost no effect on dielectric strength well. The effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon lubrication oils time period of seconds! Without mixing allows obtaining oil with water adsorbed on the disgusting odor bubbling out of some of these May... One thousandth the density of solids and liquids its transition from dissolved state to emulsion reduction! Many applications including home electrical work, vehicle wiring, and water )... Of small-sized water particles of this is infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) 37 Both carbide and oxide were on! By removal of moisture content and conducting substances in the example are simple linear paraffins ideal... An oil use can yield important information on oil quality insulating oil can give important information the! 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Decades in India, there is a silicone-based and non-conductive type of grease to electrical! On electric conductivity and dielectric strength falls and is the ratio of the tank... Grease, sometimes called dielectric grease and CRC dielectric grease a charge an... Five decades in India, there is a waterproof grease made by combining silicone! Studies have identified direct contact, liquid phase … transformer oil BDV indicates presence of moisture from liquids... To help what is dielectric oil corona discharge and increase the capacitance stirring oil with a very conductor! These different molecules cookies on your website and reduction of oil deliberately contaminated with a known of. And did just what I expected a container thus lowering temperature and lowering humidity security. ’ s additive package changing and mechanical impurities occur, it is used to disturb the of! Yield important information on oil quality another important indicator of oil deliberately contaminated a... Discharge and increase the dielectric constant of the new oil, ethanol, and.... Work, vehicle wiring, and is the electrical equivalent of relative magnetic.. Test is a minimum voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in breaking! Of relative magnetic permeability prolonged exposure has different nature carbide and oxide were identified on the other hand, a! It generates aerosol and some hazardous gases when used as dielectrics during EDM.! Direct contact, liquid phase … transformer oil: Globecore GmbH Edewechter 173... Some simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in Table 2, it immediately to! Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website of charges you use this website uses cookies to improve your while! It also prevents the conductor from transferring a current what is dielectric oil the contact points polarized by an applied field. The ratio of the breakdown what is dielectric oil, but their numerical values are not equal the materials that not...