A transformer’s solid insulation system plays a critical role in its possible failure and in its temperature-related operating limits. Fluids - Specific Gravities - Specific gravities for some common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more .. Hydrocarbons - physical data - Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 200 different hydrocarbons The oil circulates through the transformer by natural convection. Transformer oil or insulating oil is an oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. γ g = specific gravity of the solution gas. While it may be extremely difficult to physically see inside of a metal tank, we can still analyze the oil and paint the picture of the inside. These metal particles will be found alone or in differing combinations and concentrations. The specific gravity of a liquid does not alter the centrifugal pump curve at all. 0000113796 00000 n This is 100% edible and meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria for “Ultimate Biodegradability” classification. The breakdown voltage is that voltage at which sustained arcing takes place. 0000087696 00000 n - Transformer oil of … In extremely cold climates, specific gravity can be used to determine whether ice will float on the oil. Specific Gravity - Direct ratio of any liquid's weight to the weight of water at 62 degrees F. Water at 62 degrees F weighs 8.33 pounds per gallon and is designated 1.0 sp. Univolt™ N 61B is a good quality, fully inhibited transformer oil designed to meet the operating requirements of transformers and other oil filled electrical equipment. As a result, the insulation system can last up to three times longer than in a mineral oil filled transformer. The oil controls the melt flow behavior of the finished polymer besides providing release properties. 0000102962 00000 n 0.895. In many cases you will be able to detect PCB contamination just by sniffing a sample. While, it is used extremely cold climates, specific gravity, physical and chemical reaction. Or if it is a parking garage, you may not care about flash point at all. 0000008189 00000 n 0000048605 00000 n If the transformer is a padmount style transformer that is 13,800V Primary and 480/277V or 208/120V, you may need to de-energize the transformer for safety reasons. Specific Gravity . Our comprehensive range of services, including oil, hydraulic fluid, fuel, transformer, silicon, coolant and gas analysis, are tailored to your specific requirements so you always have the resources available when you most need them. Transformer Oil Sampling Neta International Electricalpoint of a transformer can change is after the retrofill of insulating fluid, such as Askarel to Silicone. Specific gravity directly affects heat transfer. It also insulates the transformer and allows electrical components to be more compact than free air apparatus. Envirotemp™ FR3™ fluid is hydrophilic, meaning – water is absorbed by the fluid or wicked away from the insulation paper. A high specific gravity indicates the oil's ability to suspend water. Base oils - true to their name - are the basis for a variety of products. The system has the following PVT properties: API = 47.1 p b = 2377 γ g = 0.851 γ gs = 0.873 R sb = 751 scf / STB B ob = 1.528 bbl / STB. Water has a specific gravity of 1.000; transformer oil is lighter than water, so the specific gravity is less than one. Transformer Oil is used for insulation and cooling of transformer. 0000082056 00000 n A specific gravity <1 means the oil … Larger transformers in secured locations (behind a security fence) will have a valve on the bottom of the tank that is readily accessible. f cellulose is overheated, carbon monoxide is generated. 0000027616 00000 n Transformer oil keeps the transformer cool. Transformer oil can be similar to a window of a house. Specific Gravity (D1298 or D4052) The specific gravity of an oil is the ratio of the weights of equal volumes of oil and water determined under specified conditions. Different cases of transformer oil used in tests are: - Transformer oil of transformers (1 & 5) is new (fresh). 0000063572 00000 n Basic screening tests indicate the dielectric strength, interfacial tension, water concentration, specific gravity, and acidity of the oil. 0000048298 00000 n 0000050433 00000 n These oils typically consist of raw vegetable oils. Mineral oil, Silicone oil, or FR3 are the most common oil types in my particular working area. General Electric Multilin Protective Relaying, Electromechanical Relay – Basic Operation, https://powertransformerhealth.blogspot.com/p/analysis-of-dga.html, Electrical Acceptance & Maintenance Testing, Electrical Troubleshooting and Repair Services, Power Quality Monitoring & Analysis Service, large amounts of acetylene and hydrogen or minor quantities of methane and ethylene can be produced, low energy discharges generate hydrogen and methane as well as minor quantities of ethane and ethylene. Does the oil have a specific gravity >1 or <1. The footage pulls back to a wider view of the transformer against the background of the power station. Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity) or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum by Hydrometer Method. D2766 Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids. The oil helps to cool the transformer and Being dielectric in nature, the transformer oil provide superior insulation for the transformer core. cv�P,�2$����� q�� �[�A��J�H�6�L?����(-�.,ū�-�'��hzj�$J�rv�ȩ1�/�gك����YY�&�ɒ���R���;I�Q�� 1lVl-e����9�xA(�m[���n�'�����J�t�\pr�nv��qP�a�t��l‡�jnRʠ�o7����`��fkE^q}�0|�����K�v�4����ms��TO Yh�Vտ^8Vǣn�$H >���R\g�A���8v6A6��1�I;$�� R8o#C˦Xi� ����p��3���N�ڃ�c� �|Sä1b�D~x�/q_�v�8bS�h����/B�(*Oq�ň��b���}bTʁ�9uш,;~���a��}T�+�ؤ�� t>�?5�-��|K��]�r�������t�:�����3�?�K,R� ��jg�@�MVȎ vg�������� 38\��@rޭ�� We are based in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area and are prepared to respond to any electrical emergency or need you may have. In world markets, standard density ranges shift with oil density proportions going between (0.84-0.89) × 103 kg/m3. Solution. Specific gravity directly affects heat transfer. 0000113640 00000 n 0000081260 00000 n (*Optional). The specifications for all oil is different between each manufacturer, but they are all relatively the same when comparing the same oil types. trailer << /Size 87 /Info 12 0 R /Encrypt 16 0 R /Root 15 0 R /Prev 120599 /ID[<3e67f2abad27f5253cf1167e406b21c8>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 15 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 11 0 R /PageMode /UseNone /ViewerPreferences << /FitWindow false /PageLayout /SinglePage /NonFullScreenPageMode /UseNone >> /Metadata 13 0 R /OpenAction 17 0 R >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 2 /O (F���X�D�������.P������ӂS�) /U (��%=�M����5_L&�ϠG�\\"���?���) /P -28 /V 1 /Length 40 >> endobj 17 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 18 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /S 53 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 86 0 R >> stream 0000064164 00000 n The thermal class of the insulating materials constrain the transformer’s (temperature) operating limits. 0000102327 00000 n The specific gravity (relative density) of an oil is the ratio of the weights of equal volumes of oil and water. Transformer Oil. If the oil has a specific gravity >1, this means the oil will settle to the bottom and any water or moisture will sit on top. AES Laboratories provides complete transformer oil and insulating oil analysis and testing services. Color is an important indicator of quality, aging and the presence of contaminants. The short answer, absolutely! w���Q��&�>��CЛfG����i���#im^�J�#� ��qh!s��u$�6� 8�ɤ?��:f�:�l)��p�M������BB�蓚�_�y8 Insulating oils play an important role in power supply. (��RY��.o���﵀��k)X�K_#�����x Fluids - Specific Gravities - Specific gravities for some common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more .. Hydrocarbons - physical data - Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 200 different hydrocarbons 0000026800 00000 n Special testing of transformer oil: This types of testing mainly used under the physical and chemical industry. 7: Specific resistance of the oil specimens from Determines the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of transformer oil by use of hydrometer at a reference temperature. 0000028046 00000 n 0000067699 00000 n It has a high fire point and is typically used in indoor areas like below grade transformer vaults. 0000001824 00000 n This data set quantifies the electrical loss rate. 0000050270 00000 n 0000084734 00000 n PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name: 76 Transformer Oil Product Code: 1041410 Intended Use: Insulating Oil Synonyms: Conoco Transformer Oil Phillips Transformer Oil Chemical Family: Petroleum Hydrocarbon Responsible Party: Conoco Lubricants A Division of ConocoPhillips 600 N. Dairy Ashford Houston, Texas 77079-1175 Customer Service: 800 … 0000026873 00000 n Water has a specific gravity of 1.000; transformer oil is lighter than water, so the specific gravity is less than one. 0000002539 00000 n 0000048634 00000 n Despite the variables that determine the density of the oil, the density number should not exceed 900 kg / m3 at a predetermined temperature of +20°C/+68°F. The density and appearance of the oil is assessed at 15 degrees Celsius or 59 degrees Fahrenheit. For fluids with a specific gravity less than 1.0, such as mineral-based transformer oils, synthetic fluids and silicone oils, the sample should be taken from the bottom since water will … 0000002518 00000 n You need to take your sample from the top. 0000102984 00000 n Transformer Oil Analysis tests identify whether the insulating properties are acceptable by measuring degradation and contamination of the oil. 0000048340 00000 n Traces of acetylene may be formed if the fault is severe or involves electrical contacts. 0000113874 00000 n They are applied in transformers as electric insulators and coolants. You can also get free analysis of dissolved gases from this link. The specific gravity of a liquid does not alter the centrifugal pump curve at all. If you have to install a transformer in the basement of a building, 3 floors underground, you may decide you want a higher flash point depending if it is occupied office space. 0000069153 00000 n 0000062118 00000 n (The specific gravity of water is 1.0. 0000060664 00000 n Despite the variables that determine the density of the oil, the density number should not exceed 900 kg / m3 at a predetermined temperature of +20°C/+68°F. 76 Transformer Oil 1. The first attribute you may see when taking an oil sample, would be color of the transformer oil. Type / Function: Heat Transfer, Thermal Oil, Coolant; Thermal / Hot Oil; Anti-freeze, Secondary Refrigerant or Circulating Coolant Specific Gravity: 0.8867 Kinematic Viscosity: 19.0 Use Temperature: 18 to 550 oil. 8{� G�QŹ�P;ߋ��;���x#.�������͓/k��H�Cd�R��WD��#��ADo�$�W����RI\�r_U8@!G�������l���6$�X��2�������jhI2A�ly�E�)�`�'�N�ѵw��V �億3�\�H��4G8#���XӌD���9��b���@(Ux/G�m"�����y ��p�v�c��8�/���h���m=�ܣ�S��qV;��]�������+y}�rt_�f��΄�����\��TӢQ�S��.t��@�S�k�q�F�H��E���~���H}��2qh��-�ح��*�� i�>.���U��j�U�hvs5�&�m��� q���m��A�-�a�������b�1��/>?镠b�G���T��G~�ϫ?�A` SMN�� w���II:������V5T���Hr��j��@|~M�V ?8k��p^����Vx�`b��� Basic screening tests indicate the dielectric strength, interfacial tension, water concentration, specific gravity, and acidity of the oil. 0000063961 00000 n 0000064376 00000 n source- Transformer Oil Density and Viscosity - ! You want to take your sample from the bottom. Taking a good oil sample is not a difficult task. For fluids with a specific gravity less than 1.0, such as mineral-based transformer oils, synthetic fluids and silicone oils, the sample should be taken from the bottom since water will … 0000088142 00000 n If you de-energize, make sure you take your oil sample while the transformer windings are still hot. Usually this parameters is not regulated and is within 0.856 to 0.886. 0000067487 00000 n Specific gravity. Relative Density or Specific Gravity. 0000007923 00000 n Does the oil have a specific gravity >1 or <1. gr. 0000113986 00000 n Most people will argue that you should de-energize the transformer before taking a sample. It is a highly refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Classic Micro Minerals - Manufacturer of Transparency Minerals, Specific Minerals Gravity & Cleavage Minerals from Kishangarh, Rajasthan, India B�n� sp�H.R��t Pʨ,[\n: �9�h��e��ј'�{���.���v�ɍp�����5T����~��f90�7�� T���Y�%&̃���T���̡P���dL]?�Ga��f�=��m���ࡊ���]h�AC)Ώfn��Gc�������'I�����z c:�;8�=�U� �m�F���4D���{Ot�̏5�X�����ב"�"�1בv#�_��ϰGo�R��$7 ��N$U7���0B'�a��p�] ��.2��p�gi`C3���������E�~ڣz!�y��R~���x���悧�S��y;c?3�Ȃ����3����!Kk^����l��.|��o��o���?�5`T qQ�2�>�Ƈo�� �N��Dڠ��bb�%e.������A���N� yU��J������!T�?�Ҋ���ßv�WU��f�t���R����ũ x tik�%5?5`h�=�9����p��v֥�mY�͜4��)�,�-7�&�{mƃ��c�͊%���Ð;�ҥ����EJ�B�Ж���n]�յ���x���b�G`e��(���t��o(4z�l�q���L��N�5����&��'�1�q���1g�Ce�ΉGm.ַ�~��%� "��D1�J0������]Im�xv����]��b�u�3�;՜5�g>�W�uFWؕ��{T�ǜ�i��E��Q�i�S��dyrN�z�)3��:Vb �u���|,nS�R��)KT}{W��#�@�M�����f9���Jt��l��G�;�3li�K1cq])\�`���s;������0��p������&u�p��%��fFR�pY*�ˢ�׭T�� ����_����K=s��*���B6�FuU�(�#改y����$]���D�v�;Ce��g� ס�b���WPF}�. If it is a government facility, they may mandate biodegradable. There are endless variables to why you may choose one of the oil types over another. +o�@�N�Y���Y��f�7��O��ӳ�Tٸ\4��}ΧMknq�"��83?Ag%�>�jh�P ���D(�X��e�j���am(��< Ɍ9�fřn5�@!�I�p�(�*,B����i&6�L\�P�Vcb���&c@D6�j=T(y��`\��]n�E����&��@[TD�����4-����W/c�Q�4I��^�+���Є�*f��yE�֕�@?#�{qC|�_�s����vWh�t��q�3{=Vk!����i�� ��/BU��N��_�3(:r'��LQ�'n�����������8�-�33G�_W�{�Nց���2>�K�c��BfY=��ɠz�5��qK�3�Bz�]T��'jʆҳJ��|B�O�Ҍ�����N�% �~�W�5��e��q���!�Va ЙI!��_�Q�{���;����PˆW.����h�K5���(��iN ��V�㷦n�m*�s�k���;�V�!%?��i8%;�1��I���O�VI)F��E�z((8e�j���xk�Ã����ý���+��{���0�&ba�mxO�Ä��b4�v80#����GK���We����j*ߐ���V|������K]0����C�X��d��&��-��pR~���ff�AR����y��ۧ #�{�M��6 ��F�{4�{1z�b�t��㈈2��ϘA�a{�C�������q|��(��T�l���X/UM��n7�$RH�nl��vW.3�a,�j��d�+� �E������?�)����V�Z8e��_�Cq� 3�'�M��[qAwp�IB����U�� �r3��wG�J��[y���˭����Gɇ���4� ��ɽ��k�/k�M2:Id�Y�J����� _=Q�CV:��W���r��NN�>����ڙBUtK�5xt�\b)�Z}��J�/Q_��\�4G��M���9)EPw��e(8���\jOӶ���58zL�B�si��m>��C=��AQ=s��H� �B��B9������d�SHp/5vQ�.��./ܱ�b��#~'@l�ƁJ4�^���(�c�^���{�-� >�q����h2��YLͲ7w�M$3����,#Pv �$�V\f*��`�^��>��:��o��!p*��c t�&A9UrV� ��m�sGL�̛9d��ޗ��C@�*w�ZM�vRxΊ���v��L��A`���f�#b�]M�)Î�}٘�ҥ�c����# F1/a You need to take your sample from the top. The most common oils include sunflower, safflower, and soybean oil. This is a test of a physical property that relates to the oil’s composition and function. ... DENSITY/SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.888 Temperature (°C): 15 (g/ml): ... specification This information relates only to the specific material designated and may In extremely cold climates, specific gravity can be used to determine whether ice, resulting from freezing of water in oil-filled apparatus, will float on the oil. 0000047988 00000 n 0000065830 00000 n 0000048676 00000 n The IEEE limits are split into categories for <69kV, 69–230kV and >230kV. A specific gravity <1 means the oil is lighter than water and will sit on top of any moisture in the tank. For example, if the specific gravity of water is 1.0 and oil is 0.89, the oil will float on top of the water. Nytro 4000X is an insulating oil; T110 is a base oil; Nypar 315 and Nyflex 3150 are process oils ; The given samples were provided by courtesy of Nynas AB, Sweden. 9: ASTM D-3612/IEC-60599: Analysis of Gases Dissolved in Electrical Insulating Oil by Gas Chromatography. 0000103026 00000 n Transformer oil temperature likewise affects the density of the transformer oil. Example 2-32. A specific gravity <1 means the oil is lighter than water and will sit on top of … 0000067049 00000 n Flush 2-4 quarts of waste oil through the sample valve before collecting the sample. 0000049589 00000 n Typical motor oil that most people think of, is not the type of oil in a transformer. A high specific gravity indicates the oil’s ability to suspend water. https://powertransformerhealth.blogspot.com/p/analysis-of-dga.html, Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *. It simply affects the horsepower required to turn the pump at the required speed. Relative density (specific gravity) D1298: Determines the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of transformer oil by use of hydrometer at a reference temperature. 0000068924 00000 n Transformer oil is a liquid that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. The specific Gravity of water is 1.0. 0000057977 00000 n 0000057949 00000 n That is why specific resistance or resistivity of transformer oil should get measured at 27 o C as well as 90 o C. Minimum standard specific resistance of transformer oil at 90 o C is 35 × 10 12 ohm–cm and at 27 o C it is 1500 × 10 12 ohm–cm. Different types of transformers warrant different things. 11001 - transformer oil revision date:may 2003 safety data sheet transformer oil 1. identification of the substance/preparation and the company: product name: transformer oil part no. 0000064605 00000 n This problem may be quickly solved using the spreadsheet program OilProperties.xls in which Standing's correlation for oil viscosity has been coded. The specific gravity of fresh engine oil was 0.90, while the specific gravity of used engine oil was 0.93. the result of the specific gravity for the composite solvent extraction treatment is 0.88, the specific gravity of single solvent extraction treatment is 0.858, and a specific gravity of acid treatment is 0.909 as shown in Figure 3. The following tests can be adopted before using the insulating oil. The characteristics of the transformer oil are analyzed at cool and very hot temperatures. Usually whatever is available on the market at the time of manufacture. Your email address will not be published. The dielectric strength of transformer oil is also known as the breakdown voltage (BDV) of transformer oil. 76 Transformer Oil 1. Inside the transformer, it works like a liquid insulation, helping with reduced clearances, and then for cooling and carrying heat from the windings and dissipating it through the tank body and Radiators. 0000103005 00000 n The type of particles will help to narrow the list of components involved in the fault. At room temperature, FR3 fluid has 10 times the water saturation level as mineral oil (FR3 fluid can dissolve over 1000 mg/kg of water before becoming saturated compared to 60 mg/kg for mineral oil at 20°C.). According to Simetric, the density of pure water at 4 degree centigrade is considered as the baseline for specific gravity; so its specific gravity is 1. Transformer paper insulation absorbs moisture. In extremely cold climates, specific gravity can be used to determine whether ice will float on the oil. The density of diesel fuel oil (20 to 60) at 15 degree centigrade is found to be in the range of 820 to 950 kilograms per cubic meter. 0000002188 00000 n D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter As acid levels increase, the quality of the oil decreases, causing dielectric loss, corrosion, and thermal problems from sludge. 11001 - TRANSFORMER OIL REVISION DATE:MAY 2003 SAFETY DATA SHEET TRANSFORMER OIL 1. Specific Gravity: 0.88 - 0.89 Bulk Density: 7.33 - 7.41 lbs/gal The greater the specific gravity and particle size and the lower the density and viscosity of the oil, the higher the precipitation rate of the impurities. Oil stored in drums does not retain its original dielectric strength and should be tested and treated before use in electrical equipment. Larger transformers may even have fans attached to the fins to assist in the cooling process. (ASTM D1298) The specific gravity (relative density) of an oil is the ratio of the weights of equal volumes of oil and water. 0000008352 00000 n If the transformer is under a vacuum, you need to apply a nitrogen blanket to bring the pressure up to 0 psi or above 0 psi to a positive pressure. Transformer Oil – What is it, and why sample? Taking a bad oil sample is a very easy task. 0000062347 00000 n If the oil has a specific gravity >1, this means the oil will settle to the bottom and any water or moisture will sit on top. Oil samples are the DNA to a transformer. 5) - Standard grade, Read more about Outperforming new specifications, Nynas NYTRO® product range is the world's widest range of transformer oils developed to handle just about every conceivable climate, design and operating condition, Millions of transformers in power grids around the world contain Nynas NYTRO oil. Having a positive pressure will make sure that you won’t suck up any outside ambient air to the inside of the transformer when you begin your oil sample. �9�3ۈ�W��F}^c������j�o|��Ũ Mineral Oil is considered as a top choice in outdoor installations where low cost and flammable nature is understood and accepted. gr. 0000027882 00000 n To improve the cooling process, radiators or “fins” are installed on the side of a transformer. Certain transformer components produce specific metal particles. 0000002250 00000 n The Density (Specific Gravity) of the oil is the ratio of the weights of equal volumes of oil and water. Acidity measures the acid levels in the transformer liquid. The thermophysical and electrical properties of graphene–transformer oil nanofluid at three weight percentage concentrations (0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05%) were experimentally studied. 0000049242 00000 n Ageing and oxidation of the oil tend to increase viscosity. 0000069741 00000 n Transformer Oil White Oils Ink Solvent Textile Oil Rust Preventive Rubber Process Oil Hydraulic Oils Metal Working Fluids. In asset life terms, the chemical properties of ester dielectric fluids enhance transformer insulation performance and life expectancy, minimising the impact of moisture. Immediately based off of color, you can tell what kind of transformer oil it is. Optimized for testing insulating oils with a specific gravity of 0.875, the Megger KF875 simply requires the operator to press one button and inject a 1ml sample into the test cell. Most electricians don't realize that a bolt and... Great site and information. 0000113952 00000 n 0000057910 00000 n Aging Study and Lifetime Estimation of Transformer Mineral Oil Mohammad R. Meshkatoddini ... of the oil are viscosity, specific gravity, flash point, oxidation stability, total acid number, ... of the oil [1,2]. We offer the transformer oil in barrels, flexi bags & … Gas-specific gravity: 0.77 (1.0 for air). 0000060642 00000 n {�E��aq:�2��� �1П�N��i�; ]�hq� �CF4��3��� �U[�_R�o3�Rx� �!��9�j� �O�e���E�P�Ae,DsX������;�$��� ), (Adjustable crescent wrench, channel lock pliers, 3/8″ and 1/4″ tubing, empty sterile oil sample bottle and/or DGA syringe, rags, etc.). Density (Specific Gravity) ASTM D1524 Transformer oil or insulating oil is a highly refined mineral or silicone oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. 0000049320 00000 n 7: ASTM D-1500: ASTM color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale) 8: ASTM D-445: Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent & Opaque Liquids. Does torque matter? 0000113718 00000 n 0000026831 00000 n It is define as this testing a high specific gravity to indicate the oil ability or suspend water. Specific gravity verifies the weight to provide the type of insulating fluid. The simple ‘one touch’ operation makes the KF875 so easy to use that it requires no … (The specific gravity of water is 1.0. A typical specification for new oil is 0.84 to 0.91. The oil test in which spark occurs and the testing set trips is known as transformer oil dielectric strength test.This test is performed in the oil testing set. 0000112517 00000 n Close-up of a transformer, with CGI imagery showing the oil within the transformer mechanism. High angle view of a stream of transparent liquid being poured into a glass beaker against a white background. Does the oil have a specific gravity >1 or <1. In extremely cold climates, specific gravity can be used to determine whether ice will float on the oil. 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