He had also been awarded the Knights Cross in addition to his Iron Cross First Class. His grave was kindly looked after by the mother of one of the sailors killed on the Sydney until his reinterment in the German cemetery in the Victorian country town of Tatura, a few miles north of Dhurringile. When they were eventually recaptured about a week later by two local police, Detmers looked ill. As punishment for his part in the escape, Detmers was sent for a month to the Old Melbourne Gaol, a bluestone relic built by convict labour back in 1842-45. More than 4,070 Australians spent the war as prisoners. On 5 August 1944, a total of 1,100 Japanese prisoners broke out from their prison camp near the small rural township of Cowra in New South Wales, stabbing or bludgeoning four unfortunate guards to death and wounding four others. His men had all been awarded the Iron Cross Second Class for their action against the Australian cruiser. Both the Sydney and the Kormoran crews fought a fierce battle with bravery and tenacity, but the loss of the 645 Australian crew was not the worst in Australian maritime history. Melden – wird in neuem Fenster oder Tab geöffnet. Most of them endured more than three years as prisoners. NEW SOUTH WALES "Bathurst Internment Camp" at Bathurst Civil Gaol: Camp 6 - Hay Internment and POW Camp: Camp 7 - … Those captured in Greece in 1941 endured long stays in unhealthy, temporary camps in Greece before facing a long rail journey across occupied Europe. Internment camps were established for three reasons – to prevent residents from assisting Australia's enemies, to appease public opinion and to house overseas internees sent to Australia for the duration of the war. They escaped from working parties using clever ruses, dug tunnels and employed a great amount of ingenuity in their escape efforts but for the most part, none got very far or were at liberty for long. On 24 November 1941, the British tanker Trocas, bound for Fremantle, reported she had rescued 27 German sailors from a rubber raft 115 miles WNW of Carnarvon. Besides, he was in fact, successful (although at a terrible cost) in preventing the Kormoran from laying mines along the Australian coast, and with its demise, stopped the potential sinking of more ships, and the loss of more lives and essential cargoes. Most remained captive for more than three years. Another described the ordeal: A week in cattle trucks in the height of sweltering summer … No seats or other amenities. They were held in a network of POW … Nineteen were taken to hospital, the remainder were distributed between the Fremantle Detention Barracks, Swanbourne Barracks and the internment camp at Harvey, 87 miles south of Perth. Copyright © 2021. He carried his jacket like a bag and filled it with apples. During WW2, the internment of enemy aliens in Australia fell under the control of the National Security Act 1939. Imprisonment was somewhat different on the Western Front. WW2 People's War Homepage ... What if amidst this close quarter fighting you suddenly find yourself a prisoner of the enemy. The sketch was made in Stalag XXI D in Posen, Poland, by Lieutenant J F Watton of the 4th Border Regiment who was captured near the Somme in June 1940. The escape sent shock waves throughout the local communities and caused tremendous concern throughout country Victoria, and it was to temporarily stifle escape attempts for the Germans at Camp 13 at Murchison. In the Middle East campaigns of 1941-42, 7,116 AIF officers and men were taken prisoner. The return of Aussie POW's to Australia . The bars of their cage could have been made with gold but those bars still prevented their freedom. German Raiders of World War 2. Garden Island, New South Wales, Australia. William Kimber, London. The Axis powers in Europe (Germany and Italy) captured 8,591 Australian personnel. The following resources are available on the Memorial's website. This account details some of their experiences in POW camps in Australia. He recovered from his illness but returned to Dhurringile partly paralysed and unable to resume his duties as camp leader. About 8,000 Australians became prisoners of war of the Germans and Italians in the Second World War. The juicy apple tasted so delicious. The decision to intern someone was sometimes based purely on that person’s family or occupation. This ‘compendium’ page is created to provide ManyRoads’ readers with a centralized location to find information, pointers, and links to assist in the search for WW1 & WW2 German War Casualties, Expellees, & Prisoners. A small group of them attracted the attention of SS physician Dr Friedrich Meythaler. No one ‘owns’ the Sydney, or has a monopoly on the truth. Most remained captive for more than three years. There were a number of Axis prisoner-of-war camps in Italy during World War II.The initials "P.G." At the end of war, POWs are usually repatriated swiftly , which was relatively straightforward for Allied POWs in Germany. EUR 4,92. Of the Kormoran’s complement of 393 officers and crew, 315 were rescued along with three of the four Chinese taken captive when the raider sank the SS Eurylochus ten months earlier. Bundesarkiv 166/509/39. They included airmen and soldiers of the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions. Australia entered World War II on 3 September 1939, following the government's acceptance of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Nazi Germany.Australia later entered into a state of war with other members of the Axis powers, including the Kingdom of Italy on 11 June 1940, and the Empire of Japan on 9 December 1941. Nearly a year after the end of World War II, a large number of German prisoners of war (POWs) were still being detained in post-war Britain. All rights reserved. One way the Government sought to ease the tension in the camps was the formal agreement reached in 1943 between the belligerent countries to allow POWs to send airmail letters. NEW SOUTH WALES "Bathurst Internment Camp" at Bathurst Civil Gaol: Camp 6 - Hay Internment and POW Camp: Camp 7 - … Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. World War 2 prisoner of war records now available to read online Britons represent the largest number in the collection, followed by Dutch, Americans and Australians mirror Britain 2. Field, 'Prisoners of the Germans and the Italians', in Barton Maughan, Tobruk and El Alamein, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1966, pp. WWII Escapers and Evaders; Rangoon Prison, 1945. Lists of Army personnel from the Australian Military Force and Second Australian Imperial Force 1940-45 (Series A828). The forgotten Australian prisoners of war experimented on by the Nazis. This number included 7,110 Australian soldiers captured in North Africa and Greece, approximately 1,470 airmen (mostly bomber aircrew shot down over Germany in 1943–45) and a small number of sailors. The truth is becoming harder to find. All the prisoners were eventually transferred to Fremantle for treatment, recuperation and a thorough interrogation. The Committee received 201 submissions, debated extensively all the issues, tried to reach logical conclusions and sadly, at the end of the last chapter of the report, stated: ‘It is important that information and theories be shared and examined. Citizen Military Forces personnel service records 1937-47 (Series B884). WWII B&W Photo German Prisoners of War Germany Feb 1945 US 9th Army WW2 / 2326. The sketch was passed by the German censor, and shows an eight-sleeper bunk in the camp. The Gallipoli campaign saw the first of 217 Australians captured by Ottoman [Turkish] forces. World War 2 Photos and Collectibles . Life in the camp was going along without too many problems but at some point he must have decided do something different. prisoners were taken to these prison camps and kept there until 1943 when the advancing Allied forced posed a threat. National Archives of Australia. During World War I, Germans living in Australia made up most internees. In 1941 the British government funded the transfer of a group of prisoners from the Middle East. Even the actual site of the engagement seems to be in doubt among researchers. AE1 – The Ship without a Name, Musical Composition by Lieutenant Matthew Klohs RAN. About 8,600 Australians became prisoners of the Germans. Many recaptured POWs told of the locals giving them the Australian ‘fair go‘ or sporting chance, such as being given food and directions and told they have 8 hours before they must be reported or given work on farms. Pan Books, Karl August Muggenthaler.1980. Detmers carried out his duties as camp leader efficiently and was respected by authorities and prisoners alike but in 1944 something was not right. About 400,000 Axis prisoners of war captured during World War II were dispatched to 500 camps around the United States. Most of the prisoners died due to disease or being executed. Australian and British prisoners captured during the Battle of Fleurbaix during 19 July 1916 and 20 July 1916 being escorted through the city streets. The next of kin had already been informed by personal telegram three days earlier. The Loss of HMAS Armidale by Dr Kevin Smith, D-Day commando on Sword Beach by Commander Jim Speed DSC, RAN. Most were captured in a string of defeats in France, North Africa and the Balkans between 1940 and 1942. Escaping became a sort of therapy to relieve the tension of camp life although a few were actually trying to get home. Australia was the only country in the world to issue airmail postage for the exclusive use of POWs and internees. The Committee strongly believes there is a need for all involved in the Sydney debate to move beyond animosity and antagonism and find common ground. At the end of World War 2 one- third of the prisoners had died. The military authorities killed 183 Japanese while trying to prevent the escape. In all, just over 20 per cent of all Italians resident in Australia were interned. prisoners were taken to these prison camps and kept there until 1943 when the advancing Allied forced posed a threat. The Australian War Memorial acknowledges the traditional custodians of country throughout Australia. They wanted to be killed. Commonwealth of Australia for permission to use material from their publications. In 1942, the American submarine, Sturgeon sank the Japanese ship Montevideo Maru with a loss of 1,050 Australian POWs and internees. In the later years of the war, Germans and Italians were also interned on the basis of nationality, particularly those living in the north of Australia. Angus and Robertson. As time moves on, the only remaining witnesses are becoming fewer and fewer, which increases the reality that the mystery may never be solved. Historians, researchers, authors and individuals all have their own ideas about what happened on that fatal evening. Detmers had carried out successful trials using the angled torpedo tubes so he certainly had the capability to use them. Allied prisoners of war in transit by cattle truck from Italy to Germany. Detmers returned to his duties at the camp after his detention time was over but on 13 March he suffered a stroke during the night and was paralysed. During WW2, the internment of enemy aliens in Australia fell under the control of the National Security Act 1939. Historians and relatives can now search through rare and important World War II records, as more than 20,000 Australian Prisoners of War records are published online for the first time. The Nominal Roll will indicate if the individual was a prisoner of war.If the serviceman you are interested in died during the war, you will find him on the Memorial's Roll of Honour database. 100%. All of us weak and suffering from diarrhoea, many with bleeding bowels and no sanitary arrangements whatsoever. Your generous donation will be used to ensure the memory of our Defence Forces and what they have done for us, and what they continue to do for our freedom remains – today and into the future. Thanks also to Raine Alexander, the Surrey History Centre, and the Australian War Memorial for their preservation of stunning images from WWI and WWII. Produced by the Naval Studies Group in conjunction with the Submarine Institute of Australia, the Australian Naval Institute, Naval Historical Society and the RAN Seapower Centre. Australian POWs in Germany POWs taking a break from a forced march near The River Naab The German prison camps (more properly known as "Stalags") first became a holding place for Australian POWs in 1941 when battles were won in North Africa, Italy and Greece. ), Filed Under: Naval Historical Review, WWII operations, History - WW2 Tagged With: Detmers, Prisoner of war, Kormoran, Australian Naval History Podcasts 1959. No further survivors were found at sea but on 27 November at 08.30 the troopship Aquitania reported she had on board 26 German sailors from a rubber raft found off the West Australian coast just a day before the British tanker Trocas reported her rescue. Perhaps some of his crew may have also noticed the real Straat Malakka berthed opposite. Prisoners were held in over 40 major camps all over Germany, from Lithuania to the Rhine. In the North Africa campaign: 1,941 Australians were captured. As in the First World War, prisoners shortened the German word for prisoner of war (“Kriegesgefangener”) to “Kriegies”. Casualty information compiled by Lieutenant-Colonel J M Williams, Australian Army Medical Corps, of Australian prisoners of war, Burma - Thailand and Japan, including section on 2/2 Pioneer Battalion. He became the Camp Leader responsible (in cooperation with the military authorities) for the day to day running of four compounds and the historical Dhurringile mansion where the higher ranking officers and their batmen lived. At the end of World War 2 one- third of the prisoners had died. Prisoner of war camps in which Australians were held. His fellow escapee, Oberstleutnant Bertram, took over the duties of camp leader until the war ended in 1945. This was considered to be a safe position. The Japanese actively sought death. Italian prisoners of war being fed by Austro-Hungarians The situation of World War I prisoners of war in Germany is an aspect of the conflict little covered by historical research. The National Archives of Australia publication: The Sinking of HMAS Sydney; Prisoners of War, 1999. Versand: + EUR 1,23 Versand . If only. Locating German WW1 & WW2 War Casualties & Prisoners . HMAS Sydney II and the HSK Kormoran Shipwreck Sites, Admiralty House, Garden and Fortifications, Royal Australian Naval Transmitting Station ACT, Heritage Tour of Northern End of Garden Island, First Victory, Musical Composition by Petty Officer Musician Martyn Hancock. Fregattenkapitan Theodore Detmers arrived in Cuxhaven, Germany on February 28, still with his crew. 755-822. The Germans and Italians had almost twice as many, 235,473 with a death rate of 4% (242 Australians). He may have looked out the porthole, noticed the ship moored at the pier opposite and wondered about the fickleness of fate. He remained slightly crippled from his stroke and retired from the Kriegsmarine on a pension. The Germans quickly realised that if they escaped they were not going to be lined up against a wall and shot. Here there were already 60 officers from the Luftwaffe and the Army, mostly from Rommel’s Afrika Korps. More than 170,000 British prisoners of war (POWs) were taken by German and Italian forces during the Second World War. His crew were still in the area plotting escapes, playing chess, exercising or out on various work parties. Many were captured twice: taken to Germany after Italy’s surrender. In March 1999, the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia published a 192 page report by the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade called: Report on the Loss of HMAS Sydney. Canberra, ACT, Australia. Australia entered World War II on 3 September 1939, following the government's acceptance of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Nazi Germany.Australia later entered into a state of war with other members of the Axis powers, including the Kingdom of Italy on 11 June 1940, and the Empire of Japan on 9 December 1941. Australian prisoners of war: Second World War - prisoners in Europe. A fifth boat reached shore north of Carnarvon, followed by a sixth which had escaped detection from the air. Use this login for Shop items, and image, film, sound reproductions, Stolen Years: Australian prisoners of war - Prisoners in Germany, Stolen Years: Australian prisoners of war. Prisoners of War 1715-1945 was … The Raider Kormoran. In World War 2 37 000 Australians became prisoners of war (POW's) including over 22 000 servicemen and about 40 nurses within different campaigns. First published: Wednesday 16 March 2016 4:06PM By: Amanda Smith. WWII Escapers and Evaders; Sketch showing life of British prisoners of war in a German camp during World War Two. Officers and men were held in separate camps – Oflags and Stalags. Throughout World War II approximately 8,600 Australians became prisoners of the Germans. Click here: http://geni.us/JansonMediaYT to subscribe to Janson Media and get notified for more videos! West Essendon. Because the only accounts of the encounter were, and still are, from the Kormoran’s survivors, it left many with the perception then and in the years that followed that the whole story was not being told. The following day a RAAF aircraft reported sighting two boats 70 miles NNW of Carnarvon, followed by a third boat. Some of these contain sections on the experiences of those members of the unit who were taken prisoner-of-war, often with lists of names. The Australian Government did attempt to put the debate into some sort of rational perspective and perhaps give some form of closure. Initially, the local population was apprehensive when the first escapes took place but over a period of time they became more relaxed when they realised the Germans were not going to murder them in their beds. Airmen floated into captivity by parachute, especially during the height of the bomber offensive in 1943 and 1944. wwiiphotos . When history has taken an interest in the Australian POW experience in the Second World War, the focus has been largely on those in Japanese captivity, where suffering was immense and mortality rates high. This is partly because only a minority of Australians actually endured captivity in the First World War. 1986. Life on the Line Podcasts 1. We hold: 1. some records of those held captive by German, Italian or Japanese forces 2. some questionnaires which may reveal personal information as well as details of experiences in the prisoner of war camps 3. some individual reports which may reveal details about capture or escape attempts from prisoners of war camps in central Europe 4. selected records of Merchant Navy prisoners of war 5. documents which reveal information about some prisoner of war camps 6. records of enquiries into mis… Life on the Line tracks down Australian war veterans and records their stories. This photograph was picked up by the donor in trenches at Villers Bretonneux (AWM A02239). Twenty-eight Australian World War II soldiers will be posthumously* awarded for their bravery 73 years after the end of the war. Minister for Defence Personnel* Darren Chester announced that the soldiers, who were all prisoners of war, died while escaping prisoner-of-war camps or … No matter how well they were treated, there was the sheer frustration of being a POW in a strange country almost on the other side of the world with no news from the Fatherland or their loved ones. The Far East Prisoner of War records are a part of the larger Prisoners of War 1715-1945 collection from The National Archives. Initially, the only Germans captured by the British were naval personnel (mainly submariners) and members of the Luftwaffe (German air force). Ed. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. When they were all out, the prisoners scattered in all directions. Twenty had been killed in the battle and the remainder had drowned due to rough seas and overcrowding in the first life raft. Trouble simmered. Naval Historical Society of Australia Inc. 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