This compound is also used in the manufacture of dyes and in insect repellants. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2994. Benzene, p. 322. Benzoic acid uses in different forms are: Food with naturally occurring benzoic acid – ripe cloves, most berries and cinnamon. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2012. Report 1. Volume 100F. Benzoic acid Accession Number DB03793 Description A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. Dietary exposure through this latter scenario was assessed using two sets of concentration data: reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized; and reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized and analytical data for food categories which may contain benzoic acid benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available. A wide variety of uses benzoic acid options are available to you, such as preservatives, antioxidants, and nutrition enhancers. Food additive (e number) Treatment of metabolic disease Antiseptic agent Pharmaceutic aid: Preservative To assess the dietary exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates (E 210–213) from their use as a food additive, the exposure was calculated based on (1) maximum permitted levels set out in the EU legislation (defined as the regulatory maximum level exposure assessment scenario) and (2) the reported use levels and analytical data (defined as the refined exposure assessment scenario). Benzoic acid is an extensively used food preservative. Benzoic acid is frequently used at levels of 0.05 to 0.1 percent in conjunction with sorbic acid. In a typical modern process, the oxidation is conducted at 165 °C and 0.9 MPa. Benzoic acid. Small amounts of benzene can be formed from benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and transition metal ions like copper and iron 38). It is used in the manufacture of dyes called aniline blue. (Fifty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 693–695. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. 2-(phenylcarbonyl)benzoic Acid 12. The pressure of the liquid discharged from the reactor is reduced to atmospheric, and unreacted toluene is recovered. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that benzoic acid and its salts may enhance hypersensitivity and/or cause skin reactions in sensitive people. When considering the non-brand-loyal scenario, the main contributing food categories were also processed fruits and vegetables and processed foods for infants; for toddlers, they were unprocessed fruits and vegetables, flavored drinks and processed foods; for children and adolescents, the main contributing food categories were flavored drinks and unprocessed fruits and vegetables and for adults and the elderly, the main contributing food categories were unprocessed fruits and vegetables and coffee, tea, herbal and fruit infusions, chicory. US Patent 3867439 A. EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources), 2011. The salt of benzoic acid (sodium benzoate) is widely used as a food pH adjuster and preservative, stopping microbes from developing to keep food healthy. 0-benzoyl Benzoic Acid 33. Benzyl derivatives. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzoic acid as feed additive for pigs for fattening when used as acidity regulator and all animal species when used as a flavouring. SCCNFP (Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products), 2002. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the formation of benzene in beverages containing benzoic acid or its salts as preservatives is linked to certain formulations, such as ascorbic acid in the presence of metallic ions and also to conditions of storage. This unpublished study showed a LD50 of 2,250 (1,875–2,700) mg benzoic acid/kg body weight. This results in exceedance of the group acceptable daily intake (ADI) in toddlers and children for the non-brand-loyal scenario. In the non-brand-loyal exposure scenario, the ADI was exceeded only for toddlers and children at the high level; at the mean level, there was no exceedance. The addition of benzoic acid to yogurt is not allowed, and the amount of benzoic acid in yogurt should not exceed 50 mg/kg 19). Benzoic acid is authorized as technological feed additive (acidity regulator) for pigs for fattening (10,000 mg/kg), as zootechnical additive for weaned piglets (5,000 mg/kg) and pigs for fattening (10,000 mg/kg) and as a chemically defined flavoring (125 mg/kg) 21). Benzoic acid (C7H6O2) was first described in the 16th century. It is commonly used as PH adjuster and also controls the growth of microbes as a preservative. Benzoic acid uses Benzoic acid is an extensively used food preservative. Based on read-across, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that this conclusion is also applicable for calcium benzoate 22). The developmental toxicity studies in rats with sodium benzoate in the diet, showed NOAELs of 500 mg/kg bw per day (the highest dose tested) and 1310 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively, comparable to or higher than the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw per day in the dietary multigeneration reproductive toxicity in rats with benzoic acid. 2016. However it was considered that further monitoring would be useful although no further formal action was considered necessary by the Commission at this time”. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate have also been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers 29) and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products 30). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({ Benzoic acid (E 210), sodium benzoate (E 211), potassium benzoate (E 212) and calcium benzoate (E 213) are authorized food additives (food preservatives) in the European Union (EU) 2). According to industry, ‘production of benzoic acid is by liquid-phase oxidation of toluene in the presence of a cobalt catalyst. 2-benzoyl-benzoic Acid 13. The Panel concluded that from the use of benzoic acid-benzoates as food additives from direct addition to food, the group ADI was exceeded in the brand-loyal scenario for toddlers and children consuming on a regular basis flavored drinks. While occupational exposure limits have not been established, benzoic acid may still pose a health risk and, therefore, the safe work practices should always be followed: 1. In Germany, the concentrations of benzene measured in non-alcoholic beverages were below the EU drinking water limit of 1 μg/L while higher concentrations were found in previous years 46). Benzoic Acid is a colorless crystalline solid with the chemical formula C 7 H 6 O 2. The notion that benzoic acid is unlikely to be carcinogenic is backed by evidence on its precursors. Benzoic acid is a compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent. It has been used with salicylic acid as a topical antifungal agent and in the treatment of athletes foot and ringworm 2 . An optical test strip for the detection of benzoic acid in food. JECFA has additionally reviewed benzoic acid as a flavoring substance. Benzoic acid has a long history of use as an antifungal agent in topical therapeutic preparations such as Whitfield’s ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%) 2. Learn more about Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (Paba) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Para-Aminobenzoic Acid … It is also present in baby products, skin products, cleansing products, hair and nail products, soaps, bath products, detergents etc. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Conumers concerning benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 2002. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 1996. Originally the oxidation reaction was carried out at 140 °C and ca. Moreover, the European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the available data did not indicate any carcinogenic potential 9). Maki T and Takeda K, 2000. “The Committee noted that the reformulation work by the industry appeared to be working given the limited number of samples in which levels of benzene were above 10 μg/L. It is also a precursor to benzoyl chloride. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that when benzoic acid or its salts and ascorbic acid are used together, consideration should be given to the storage of soft drinks and food contact materials to minimize the formation of benzene in beverages. One of the components of toothpaste, mouthwash, and face wash creams is C 6 H 5. Food Technol. 1-13. The European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that the use of benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts as food additives did not raise a concern with respect to genotoxicity. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Final. It is white and belongs to the family of carboxylic acid. Benzoic acid is generally recognized as safe; however, adverse effects related to allergic reactions, such as asthma, urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock, metabolic acidosis, and convulsions, have been reported in sensitive individuals following oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure to benzoic acid 10), 11). To help absorb excess oil (sebum) that can lead to acne breakouts, sulphur helps dry out the surface of your skin. The available data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in animals and humans indicate that benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are rapidly absorbed, primarily in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract, after oral administration. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that benzene is a genotoxic carcinogen classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) 47), that the World Health Organization (WHO) has derived a guideline value for benzene in drinking water of 10 μg/L 48), that according to the Council Directive 98/83/EC12 the maximum level of benzene in drinking water is 1 μg/L in the European Union and that the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment considered that the concentration of benzene in beverages should be as low as reasonably achievable 49). An acute study by gavage with benzoic acid in albino rats was available to the European Food Safety Authority Panel. EFSA Journal 2011;9(7):2318, 73 pp. For food and pharmaceutical uses, benzoic acid is upgraded by further processing. Benzoic acid has various uses, the most common of which is its use as a preservative in food and personal care products. A four-generation reproductive toxicity study with benzoic acid in the diet in rats was considered by the Panel as the pivotal study and a no observed adverse effect level of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested, was identified. The name was derived from gum benzoin. It is used in various ways, like manufacturing of insect repellents, below are some uses of benzoic acid in our life. Annex VI report. Considering the present toxicological database the European Food Safety Authority Panel identified a NOAEL of 500 mg/kg body weight per day and applying an uncertainty factor of 100, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived a group ADI of 5 mg/kg body weight per day, expressed as benzoic acid, for benzoic acid (E 210), sodium benzoate (E 211), potassium benzoate (E 212) and calcium benzoate (E 213). Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are also included in the European Union Register of feed additives 20). Held in Brussels on 20 July 2007. It is used as a medicine and in the manufacture of medicines. Benzoic acid helps prevent bacteria from developing infections. It is used as an antifungal for treating diseases like ringworm and athlete’s foot. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid topical (for the skin) is a combination medicine used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema. For children and adolescents, the main contributing food categories were confectionary, flavored drinks and processed fish and fishery products; while, for adults and the elderly, the main contributing food categories were processed fruit and vegetables and sauces. It was first prepared from coal tar. Benzoic acid is purified by rectification. Compound Benzoic Acid Ointment is used for fungal infections of skin, skin fungal infections, lice and scabies infestations and other conditions. It is used as a preservative in drugs. 2009;20:414–418. In its 1996 evaluation, JECFA 36) presented the results of acute oral toxicity studies in rats, rabbits and dogs, showing LD50 (lethal dose 50, where 50% of test subjects die) values for benzoic acid or sodium benzoate ranging from 2,000 to 2,700 mg/kg body weight. Though benzoic acid is used in cosmetics, dyes, plastics and insect repellents, it is most commonly included in food products as a preservative. EFSA Journal 2008;6(3):660, 54 pp. Information on the stability of the salts of the benzoic acid in food is very limited, but the benzoate anion is chemically stable, and degradation in food or reactions with food components are not anticipated, with the exception of the reaction with ascorbic acid under certain conditions (see benzoic acid hazards below). Paint additives and coating additives Benzoic Acid and Derivatives, in ‘Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of industrial Chemistry’ pp 329-342, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Benzoic acid is often conjugated to glycine in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid. Concise International Chemical Document; World Health Organization (WHO); Geneva, Switzerland: 2006. pp. In the non-brand-loyal scenario, the main contributing food categories were flavored drinks and sauces for all population groups. Indications of the possible formation of benzene from benzoic acid in foods. Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. Purox and Kalama® Benzoate Preservatives Benzoic acid and its salts are highly effective preservatives to inhibit the growth of yeasts, bacteria, and molds in acidic food and beverage applications. This formalin is used as a disinfectant in industries, preservative in some food products, funeral home etc. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS): Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate. It is excreted as hippuric acid after conjugation with glycine in the liver. WHO (World Health Organization), 2011. Unii-1n20y812xw 31. This was a brief on benzoic acid application. Benzoic acid, its salts and esters are used as preservatives (up to 0.5 %, calculated as acid) and currently as disinfectants (up to 2.5 %, calculated as acid) in cosmetic products. Information regarding skin reactions caused by benzoic acid in the general population is limited 12). Benzoic acid is a byproduct of phenylalanine metabolism in bacteria. Opinion on benzoic acid and its salts. Fragen und Antworten zu Benzol in Erfrischungsgetränken und Karottensäften. enable_page_level_ads: true The drug used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema is benzoic acid and topical salicylic acid (for the skin). Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Benzoic acid, a white, crystalline organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, widely used as a food preservative and in the manufacture of various cosmetics, dyes, plastics, and … E210 is used in the preservation of food. Lancet, 370, 1560-1567. Considering additional exposure from food categories which may contain benzoic acid-benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available, the Panel concluded that exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates could be increased by up to two to three fold for all high-level consumers compared to the previous scenario for direct addition to food. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid. In 1974, JECFA 6) established a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0–5 mg/kg body weight for benzoic acid and its salts, expressed as benzoic acid, which was reconfirmed at its most recent evaluation in 1996 7). Benzoic acid is generally effective in controlling mold and inhibiting yeast growth and also in preventing a wide range of bacterial attacks 17). When formaldehyde is dissolved in water, it is called formalin. 41) were summarized by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment 42). Considering only food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates to food is authorized, the refined exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates (E 210–213) in toddlers and children, exceeded the ADI of 5 mg/kg body weight per day at the high level (95th percentile) in the refined brand-loyal exposure estimate, while, for the non-brand-loyal scenario, the group acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded in any population group. The maximum permitted concentrations of benzoic acid in each type of food are controlled by legislation. Chemical Agents and related Occupations. Benzoic acid. An acute study with benzoic acid by gavage in male and female mice was available to the European Food Safety Authority Panel. Along with other acne-fighting additives, some products contain sulphur, such as resorcinol. 909 73-84. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives reviewed benzoic acid as a flavoring substance at its 59th meeting, as one of a group of benzyl derivatives, at which the group ADI of 0–5 mg/kg body weight for benzoic acid and related compounds was reconfirmed 25). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2008.660. WHO Technical Report Series, 868, 41-43. Benzoic acid is a common ingredient in many common household items. 0.2 MPa with a cobalt naphthenate catalyst (0.1%). Benzoic acid preservative prevents or delays Benzoic acid preservative prevents or delays nutritional losses due to microbiological, enzymatic, or chemical changes of foods during its shelf life. The results of the available short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and sodium benzoate indicated that the toxicity of benzoic acid and its salts is low with no marked target organ toxicity. BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment]), 2005. Studies on benzene formation in beverages. BAuA (Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), 2011. Summary record of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents. Chang P and Ku K, 1993. Potassium benzoate is obtained in high yield by reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon solution of benzoic acid, such as that which is obtained from the toluene oxidation process, with potassium hydroxide preferably in concentrated aqueous solution, thereby precipitating solid potassium benzoate 15). Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid, a fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. Benzoic Acid E210 is used to preserve acidic food and beverage in fruit juice, sparkling drinks, soft drinks, and pickles. WHO Food Additives Series, 48. Studies on benzene formation in beverages. Emerald’s Purox benzoates are produced to the highest purity available, minimum 99.9%, which ensures excellent taste and odor profiles. Overall, given supporting evidence of lack of carcinogenicity of the related substances benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and benzaldehyde as described by JECFA, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that the data are sufficient to conclude that benzoic acid and its salts did not raise concern with respect to carcinogenicity. In the brand-loyal scenario, benzoic acid exposures were from flavored fermented milk products and sauces for infants, flavored fermented milk products, processed fish and fishery products and flavored drinks; for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, they were flavored drinks, sauces and processed fish and fishery products. Cranberries contain as much as 300-1300 mg free benzoic acid per kg fruit 1). WHO Technical Report Series, No. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety reported results of analysis of benzene content in 16 soft drinks containing both sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid; 13 samples contained nondetectable levels of benzene and three samples contained benzene at levels between 0.7 and 4.7 mg/L 45). This study showed no effect on growth, fertility, lactation or survival, and provided a NOAEL, for both the parental animals and the offspring, of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested. SCCNFP/0532/01 final. Steinbrenner N, Löbell-Behrends S, Reusch H, Kuballa T and Lachenmeier DW, 2010. Benzoic acid as a biocide (a chemical substance that destroys any harmful organism) was evaluated by Germany 27) and is permitted for this use according to EU Commission Implementing Regulation 1035/2013 28). From these reproductive and developmental studies, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg/kg body weight per day (expressed as benzoic acid) applying an uncertainty factor of 100. Cakir R, Cagri-Mehmetoglu A. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4353. Required fields are marked *. The European Food Safety Authority Panel on Food Additives, Flavorings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials concluded that the study provides limited evidence that the two different mixtures of synthetic colours and sodium benzoate tested had a small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in some children selected from the general population, although the effects were not observed for all children in all age groups and were not consistent for the two mixtures. EFSA Journal 2016;14(1):4353, 13 pp. Scientific Opinion on re-evaluation of calcium carbonate (E 170) as a food additive. 2011;11(8):7302-13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231706/. No studies appear to have been conducted on calcium benzoate, but the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that calcium benzoate also dissociates into its constituents calcium and benzoate ions in the small intestine. Your email address will not be published. 2-benzoyl Benzoic Acid 34. World Health Organization. Other uses for benzoic acid and its salts include regulated use as food preservatives, most 2013; 6(1):47-54. https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/animal-feed-eu-reg-comm_register_feed_additives_1831-03.pdf, EFSA FEED Panel (EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed). IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), 2012. In a developmental toxicity study in rats with benzoic acid by gavage, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 160 mg benzoic acid/kg body per day was observed for maternal and developmental toxicity The developmental toxicity studies in rats with sodium benzoate in the diet showed a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 500 mg/kg body weight per day comparable to the NOAEL of the dietary four-generation reproductive toxicity in rats with benzoic acid. 1–48. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Benzoic acid and its salts SCF/CS/ADD/CONS/48 Final. SANCO – D1(2007)D/412774. The issue was considered in the meetings of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health in July and December 2007 43), 44). Opinion on benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. Preparation of potassium benzoate. (2007) on the effect of some colours and sodium benzoate on children’s behaviour. The earliest mention of benzoic acid appears from the 16th century. OJ L 283, 25.10.2003, p. 31–34. The results of the available short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and its salts indicated that their toxicity is low, with no marked target organ toxicity, although high intakes of benzoic acid may lead to disturbances in the acid/base balance, and benzoic acid at high doses may interfere with intermediary metabolism. It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an EC 3.1.1.3 (triacylglycerol lipase) inhibitor, an EC 1.13.11.33 ( arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor, a plant metabolite, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an algal metabolite and a drug allergen. SANCO/1396/2001. Gardner LK and Lawrence GD, 1993. The drug used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema is benzoic acid and topical salicylic acid (for the skin). Other oil-soluble cobalt salts were also used as catalysts. Benzoic acid's most common uses are in carbonated beverages, pickles, sauces, and jelly. 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