It is one of the relatively few Sundays some Reformed denominations may offer the communion meal, and is one of the days of the year specially appointed among Moravians for the celebration of their Love Feasts. Mary And Pentecost. The holiday is also called "White Sunday" or "Whitsunday" or "Whitsun", especially in the United Kingdom, where traditionally the next day, Whit Monday, was also a public holiday (since 1971 fixed by statute on the last Monday in May). In these sermons, dating to the 5th century, Leo discusses Macedonianism, which the Catholic Church denounced as heresy because Macedonianism considered the Holy Spirit inferior to the Father and Son, thereby undermining the Trinity. Christian holiday commemorating the Holy Spirit's descent upon the Apostles, This article is about the Christian holiday. The author begins by noting that the disciples of Jesus "were all together in one place" on the "day of Pentecost" (ημέρα της Πεντηκοστής). It says in Acts 1:13-16 that the disciples were present in the upper room (v. 13) and that Mary was with them (v. 14).  The Paschal Candle is removed from the sanctuary at the end of the day. It is the unique reference to the Mother of God after Jesus' entrusting to St. John the Evangelist and the Apostle at the feet of the cross, an episode known as Ecce homo. At the bottom is an allegorical figure, called Kosmos, which symbolizes the world. At Pentecost the Blessed Virgin Mary received the Holy Spirit with unique fullness because hers is the freest human heart. Traditionally, the Church prays the Novena to the Holy Spirit in the days before Pentecost. Pentecost means “the 50th day.” Fiftieth day from what? For some Protestants, the nine days between Ascension Day, and Pentecost are set aside as a time of fasting and universal prayer in honor of the disciples' time of prayer and unity awaiting the Holy Spirit. There were certain celebrations and sacrifices and offerings which were prescribed in the Law for the day of Pentecost. It refers to the Jewish festival celebrated on the fiftieth day after Passover, also known as the "Feast of Weeks"[i] and the "Feast of 50 days" in rabbinic tradition. Similarly among Roman Catholics, special Pentecost novenas are prayed. In the Byzantine Catholic Rite Pentecost Monday is no longer a Holy Day of Obligation, but rather a simple holiday. , In Tobit 2:1 Pentēkostē is used as an alternate name for the Jewish holiday of Shavuot. "And when the day of Pentecost was now come," shows there was a period of time before the day of Pentecost. 2.  In Acts 2:17, it reads: "'And in the last days,' God says, 'I will pour out my spirit upon every sort of flesh, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy and your young men will see visions and your old men will dream dreams." There were certain celebrations and sacrifices and offerings which were prescribed in the Law for the day of Pentecost. They greeted each other with joy, and Mary told him about the visit from the angel. The Savior, crucified on Friday, was in the tomb on the passover Sabbath, and rose on Sunday, the day from whence the count began. Holy Communion is likewise often a feature of the Protestant observance of Pentecost as well. Pentecost was approaching. " The date for the "Feast of Weeks" originally came the day after seven full weeks following the first harvest of grain. In the Roman Catholic Church, Veni Sancte Spiritus is the sequence hymn for the Day of Pentecost. As an example, consider the momentous events that launched the New Testament church, as described in the second chapter of the book of Acts. "Whitsunday" has been the name of the day in the Church of England. "And when the day of Pentecost was now come," shows there was a period of time before the day of Pentecost. Conceivably, it would not have taken that long. (1 Corinthians 15:3-8) Mary’s faith surely grew with each appearance, whether she saw it or heard the reports. Do you fear, say, that the Holy Ghost may come down in the form of fiery tongues and open the gates of my prison?". 6 Fascinating Facts about Mary, Mother of Jesus Here are some of the most fascinating facts about one of the most famous and beloved religious figures in our history – The Virgin Mary.  The gathered disciples were "filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance". Throughout the year, in Roman Catholic piety, Pentecost is the third of the Glorious Mysteries of the Holy Rosary, as well as being one of the Stations of the Resurrection or Via Lucis. In some cases vigils on the Eve of Pentecost may last all night. Now, we have another meeting and this meeting is for the purpose of the "Holy Spirit being given."  Pentecost may also refer to the 50 days from Easter to Pentecost Sunday inclusive of both.  By this time, some Jews were already living in Diaspora. The name of the day itself is derived from the Greek word "pentecoste," meaning 50th. I am inclined to think that verses 12-14 are an apt description of the apostles’ activity during the entire 50-day period preceding Pentecost. There are several major features to the Pentecost narrative presented in the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. The Italian name Pasqua rossa comes from the red colours of the vestments used on Whitsunday. Uniquely, these prayers include a petition for all of those in hell, that they may be granted relief and even ultimate release from their confinement, if God deems this possible.. When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. In many evangelical churches in the United States, the secular holiday, Mother's Day, may be more celebrated than the ancient and biblical feast of Pentecost. Having seen what was the situation before the day of Pentecost it is now time to see what happens after the day of Pentecost. "Byzantine Catholics and the Feast Of Pentecost: "Your good Spirit shall lead me into the land of righteousness. To see this, let’s start examining some things that Jesus Christ said in the gospels.  The timing of the narrative during the law giving festival of Pentecost symbolizes both continuity with the giving of the law, but also the central role of the Holy Spirit (understood as an aspect of Jesus Christ) for the early Church. This is a Vespers service to which are added three sets of long poetical prayers, the composition of Saint Basil the Great, during which everyone makes a full prostration, touching their foreheads to the floor (prostrations in church having been forbidden from the day of Pascha (Easter) up to this point). In 1964 Fritz Werner wrote an oratorio for Pentecost Veni, sancte spiritus (Come, Holy Spirit) on the sequence Veni Sancte Spiritus, and Jani Christou wrote Tongues of Fire, a Pentecost oratorio. , The Acts narrative of the Pentecost includes numerous references to earlier biblical narratives like the Tower of Babel, and the flood and creation narratives from the Book of Genesis.  Some scholars have interpreted the passage as a reference to the multitude of languages spoken by the gathered disciples, while others have taken the reference to "tongues" (γλώσσαι) to signify ecstatic speech. Join Facebook to connect with Mary Pentecost and others you may know. Later, the next day I toured the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia. The Shepherd of Hermas). For example, in both Protestant and Catholic churches, the plants brought in to decorate for the holiday may be each "sponsored" by individuals in memory of a particular loved one, or in honor of a living person on a significant occasion, such as their Confirmation day. After the council, Pentecost Monday is no longer solemnized. – Ripe strawberries at Pentecost mean a good wine crop.  The actual mention of fifty days comes from Leviticus 23:16. Ben Hadad, the king of Syria, was threatening war against Israel and its King, Ahab. The typical image of Pentecost in the West is that of the Virgin Mary seated centrally and prominently among the disciples with flames resting on the crowns of their heads. In Italy it was customary to scatter rose petals from the ceiling of the churches to recall the miracle of the fiery tongues; hence in Sicily and elsewhere in Italy Whitsunday is called Pasqua rosatum.  While this practice is common among a wide spectrum of Western denominations (Eastern Churches do not employ instrumental accompaniment in their worship) it is particularly typical, and distinctive to the heritage of the Moravian Church. Pentecost, the birth of the Church by the Holy Spirit, shows this in factual terms: Mary is in the midst of the praying assembly that, by the Spirit’s Advent, becomes Church. It corresponds to a special power of intercession that the prayers dedicated to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary have in respect of any other saint praying God in favour of His sons and believers. The shops were closed. The customs for the festival were performed in the following order: first, home and hearth would be cleaned; second, foods were prepared for the festival; finally, homes and churches were decorated with wildflowers and various types of green herbs and plants. [ii] The term has also been used in the literature of Hellenistic Judaism by Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. At Pentecost, these Holy Ghost holes would be decorated with flowers, and sometimes a dove figure lowered through into the church while the narrative of Pentecost was read. In the United Kingdom the day is known as Whit Monday, and was a bank holiday until 1967 when it was replaced by the Spring Bank Holiday on the last Monday in May. 23:15-16). Ordinations are celebrated across a wide array of Western denominations at Pentecost, or near to it. , The events of Acts Chapter 2 are set against the backdrop of the celebration of Pentecost in Jerusalem. Each day includes a reading from the Catechism about the Blessed Mother and the Holy Spirit and includes a prayer to the Holy Spirit and a Memorare. The liturgical celebrations of Pentecost in Western churches are as rich and varied as those in the East. William Shakespeare mentions Pentecost in a line from Romeo and Juliet Act 1, Scene V. At the ball at his home, Capulet speaks in refuting an overestimate of the time elapsed since he last danced: "What, man? He draws an analogy between Jewish practices and the Christian feast day: "As once to the Hebrew people, freed from Egypt, the law was given on Mt. Mary Ann Pentecost was born on month day 1837, to Isaac Pentecost and Martha. Suddenly, a terrific wind came from heaven and filled the place: On the day of Pentecost all the believers were meeting together in one place. (1 Corinthians 15:3-8) Mary’s faith surely grew with each appearance, whether she saw it or heard the reports. Traditionally, the Church prays the Novena to the Holy Spirit in the days before Pentecost. But, perhaps the house had a huge upper room.  Scholars have speculated about a possible earlier literary source for the list of nations including an astrological list by Paul of Alexandria and various references to the Jewish diaspora by writers of the Second Temple era (particularly Philo of Alexandria). The most widespread version was that told (twice) by Jacobus de Voragine in the Golden Legend. The holiday is also called "White Sunday" or "Whitsunday" or "Whitsun", especially in the United Kingdom, where traditionally the next day, Whit Monday, was also a public holiday (since 1971 fixed by statute on the last Monday in May).The Monday after Pentecost is a legal holiday in many European countries.  In Jewish tradition the fiftieth day was known as the Festival of Weeks. Eventually the fifty day period, influenced by Luke’s writings, separated into three festivals of Resurrection-Ascension-Pentecost. The day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday. 3.  It became customary to gather at synagogue and read the Book of Ruth and Exodus Chapters 19 and 20. Scholars believe that even if the Pentecost narrative is not literally true, it does signify an important event in the history of the early Church which enabled the rapid spread of Christianity. Mary’s motherhood is not just based on the biological event, which happened once, but on the fact that in her total being, Mary was, and is, and therefore will remain, a mother. See more ideas about pentecost, church, mary. In the Church and for the Church, mindful of Jesus’ promise, she waits for Pentecost and implores a multiplicity of gifts for everyone, in accordance with each one's personality and mission. In Part One, I retold the major tradition associated with the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. 19.14-25 and Mary was not born until over 1500 years. It was a public holiday in Ireland until 1973, when it was replaced by Early Summer Holiday on the first Monday in June. Then, at the chapter break in our English Bibles, it says “When the day of Pentecost had come,” (v. 2:1). About one hundred and twenty followers of Christ (Acts 1:15) were present, including the Twelve Apostles (Matthias was Judas' replacement) (Acts 1:13, 26), Jesus' mother Mary, other female disciples and his brothers (Acts 1:14).  Theologian Stephen Wilson has described the narrative as "exceptionally obscure" and various points of disagreement persist among bible scholars. It may have been only after her Son’s resurrection that Mary truly believed, as did some of her other children (Galatians 1:19). Mary prayed with the first Christian community, awaiting the gift of the Holy Spirit for all believers. When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. This is study Acts003 (1:12-26) The Upper Room Before Pentecost. Other congregations have incorporated the use of red balloons, signifying the "Birthday of the Church". Born of the Spirit: The last mention of Mary by Luke occurs at Pentecost and in Acts 1:12-14. Again, there were many iconic depictions of the Virgin and Child.  In the southern hemisphere, for example, in southern Australia, Pentecost comes in the mellow autumntide, after the often great heat of summer, and the red leaves of the poinsettia have often been used to decorate churches then. “And they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers” (Acts 2:42). Now our feast of the coming of the Holy Spirit, this day was long celebrated by Jesus' people.  In Exodus 34:22 it is called the "firstfruits of the wheat harvest. In Italy and Malta, it is no longer a public holiday. Pentecost was a holiday. [...], In contemplating Mary’s powerful intercession as she waits for the Holy Spirit, Christians of every age have frequently had recourse to her intercession on the long and tiring journey to salvation, in order to receive the gifts of the Paraclete in greater abundance. But, I think it’s safe to infer that she was. We cannot glean from the text the amount of time that passed between the teaching of Peter with the selection of Matthias, and the arrival of Pentecost (Lev. It is proposed that the term Whit Sunday derives from the custom of the newly baptized wearing white clothing, and from the white vestments worn by the clergy in English liturgical uses. We don’t know where exactly John lived. According to Acts 1:15, the group was obeying Jesus’ instructions to go to Jerusalem and wait. I thought it was an interesting question so I researched it. (The Book of Common Prayer only once uses the word "Pentecost" for the festival. Pentecost was a holiday. It also includes references to certain theophanies, with certain emphasis on God's incarnate appearance on biblical Mount Sinai when the Ten Commandments were presented to Moses. Let me explain why I have reached this conclusion. While the Eve of Pentecost was traditionally a day of fasting for Catholics, contemporary canon law no longer requires it. For other uses, see, The Greek term used for Shavuot in the Septuagint translation of, ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν ἔτους πεντηκοστοῦ καὶ ἑκατοστοῦ. He writes that a well-defined, distinct Christian celebration did not exist until later years, when Christians kept the name of "Pentecost" but began to calculate the date of the feast based on Easter rather than Passover. At the top of the icon, the Holy Spirit, in the form of tongues of fire, is descending upon them. The Pope stated that Mary prayed God and her prayer of intercession was capable to persuade God to send His Holy Spirit as a permanent gift for the Twelve and their successors forming the Apostolic Church. I can... by Matt Slick | Mar 26, 2020 | Questions, The Church. The first day is known as "Trinity Sunday"; the second day is known as "Spirit Monday" (or "Monday of the Holy Spirit"); and the third day, Tuesday, is called the "Third Day of the Trinity. In Eastern Christianity, Pentecost can also refer to the entire fifty days of Easter through Pentecost inclusive; hence the book containing the liturgical texts is called the "Pentecostarion". This tradition is attributed to various sources depending upon where the writer first encountered it. The Day of Pentecost. Let me explain by going to the Scripture. Mary most likely lived out her remaining years in John’s home, according to John 19:27. On the day of Pentecost, seven weeks after the resurrection of Jesus, the disciples of Jesus were enabled by the Spirit of God to speak powerfully to the thousands of worshippers assembled near the Temple in Jerusalem: Basically, the evidence seems to suggest that she was, but it is not definitive. The singing of Pentecost hymns is also central to the celebration in the Western tradition. Mary A Pentecost 1837 Mary A Pentecost in 1881 England & Wales Census. We greatly appreciate your consideration! Is it okay to take communion at home outside the church?  Some semantic details suggest that the "house" could be the "upper room" (ὑπερῷον) mentioned in Acts 1:12-26, but there is no literary evidence to confirm the location with certainty and it remains a subject of dispute amongst scholars.  The Septuagint writers also used the word in two other senses: to signify the year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:10), an event which occurs every 50th year, and in several passages of chronology as an ordinal number. In modern times, this practice has been revived, and adapted as well, to include the strewing of origami doves from above or suspending them, sometimes by the hundreds, from the ceiling.. He also denounces Manichean doctrine on the Holy Spirit, which taught that the Holy Spirit was present in Mani. I do not think that verses 12-14 describe only the activity of the believers during the 10-day gap between our Lord’s ascension and Pentecost, however. [...]. Theologically, Orthodox do not consider Pentecost to be the "birthday" of the Church; they see the Church as having existed before the creation of the world (cf. However, in the modern Roman Rite (Ordinary Form), Pentecost ends after Evening Prayer on the feast day itself, with Ordinary Time resuming the next day. In Northern Europe Pentecost was preferred even over Easter for this rite, as the temperatures in late spring might be supposed to be more conducive to outdoor immersion as was then the practice. This group of visitors includes both Jews and "proselytes" ... we see the Apostles before the day of Pentecost ‘persevering with one mind in prayer with the women and Mary the Mother of Jesus, and with his brethren’ (Acts 1:14), and we also see Mary by her prayers imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation” (Lumen gentium, n.59). I received an email recently where a person asked if Mary was in the upper room during Pentecost. According to Acts 2:5-11 there were Jews from "every nation under heaven" in Jerusalem, possibly visiting the city as pilgrims during Pentecost.  The Festival of Weeks is also called the feast of Harvest in Exodus 23:16 and the day of first fruits in Numbers 28:26. Note on Pentecost: The Hebrews ... Vss13,14: We find the disciples in the upper room, devoting themselves to prayer. , Scholars believe that Pope Leo I's Sermons 75–77 were given on Pentecost Sunday. Pentecost is also one of the occasions specially appointed for the Lutheran Litany to be sung. 3. The Christian holiday of Pentecost, which is celebrated the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 2:1–31). Day One: The Holy Spirit Overshadows Us All This has been translated into many languages and is sung in many denominations today. . The Monday after Pentecost is a legal holiday in many European countries. These flowers often play an important role in the ancestral rites, and other rites, of the particular congregation. " Note here the allusion to the tradition of mumming, Morris dancing and wedding celebrations at Pentecost. According to legend, King Arthur always gathered all his knights at the round table for a feast and a quest on Pentecost: So ever the king had a custom that at the feast of Pentecost in especial, afore other feasts in the year, he would not go that day to meat until he had heard or seen of a great marvel. We honor Mary as Mother of the Church on the day after Pentecost, reminding us that Mary was present with the disciples on Pentecost.  Mozart composed an antiphon Veni Sancte Spiritus in 1768. The feast itself lasts three days. Mary A Pentecost was born circa 1837, at birth place. by Matt Slick | May 1, 2020 | Questions, Science. We can see that Mary was in the upper room among the 120 before Pentecost. On the nine days from Ascension Thursday (May 25) to Pentecost Sunday (June 4), we invite you to pray with us for a new Pentecost. The Orthodox icon of the feast depicts the Twelve Apostles seated in a semicircle (sometimes the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) is shown sitting in the center of them).  In modern times, the term in Greek refers to the eve of Pentecost, not Pentecost itself; or, in the case of Megara in Attica, to the Monday and Tuesday after Pascha, as roses are often used during the whole liturgical season of the Pentecostarion, not just Pentecost. " The Afterfeast of Pentecost lasts for one week, during which fasting is not permitted, even on Wednesday and Friday. Now, we have another meeting and this meeting is for the purpose of the "Holy Spirit being given." Pentecost is one of the Great Feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church, a Solemnity in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, a Festival in the Lutheran Churches, and a Principal Feast in the Anglican Communion. In Finland there is a saying known virtually by everyone which translates as "if one has no sweetheart until Pentecost, he/she will not have it during the whole summer. (See: Acts 20:16 & 1 Corinthians 16:8) Since the lifetime of some who may have been eyewitnesses, annual celebrations of the descent of the Holy Spirit have been observed. This page is also available in: العربية (Arabic) Français (French) हिन्दी (Hindi) The scriptures shows that the Holy Spirit was present before the Pentecost.The Holy Spirit was given to the people from the beginning of time. Leo discusses other Catholic doctrine pertaining to the Holy Spirit, especially emphasizing the Spirit's relationship to the Father and Son of the Trinity and the Catholic Church. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Several hymns were written and composed for Pentecost, Journée de solidarité envers les personnes âgées, "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 1:13–15, Acts 1:26 – King James Version". It is quite possible that the women present included the wives of the apostles. We'd love to keep you up to date with what is happening at CARM. Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel wrote cantatas such as Werdet voll Geistes (Get full of spirit) in 1737. Then there was the forty mystery days when Jesus was gone but not gone—with them but not with them, at least not like before. Mary married Thomas Pentecost. , While Eastern Christianity treats Pentecost as the last day of Easter in its liturgies, in the Roman liturgy it is usually a separate feast. ", "Catholics at Monash: Photos of Ecumenical Pentecost Celebrations", "General audience of Wednestay 28 May 1997", "Did You Ever Wonder... about Pentecost Traditions? , Trumpeters or brass ensembles are often specially contracted to accompany singing and provide special music at Pentecost services, recalling the Sound of the mighty wind. Occasionally, parting clouds suggesting the action of the "mighty wind", rays of light and the Dove are also depicted. Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas for Pentecost, including Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! In some denominations, for example the Lutheran Church, even if an ordination or consecration of a deaconess is not celebrated on Pentecost, the liturgical color will invariably be red, and the theme of the service will be the Holy Spirit. Marking the festival's importance, in several denominations, such as the Lutheran, Episcopal, and United Methodist churches, and formerly in the Roman Catholic Church, all the Sundays from the holiday itself until Advent in late November or December are designated the 2nd, 3rd, Nth, Sunday after Pentecost, etc. , An extraordinary service called the "Kneeling Prayer" is observed on the night of Pentecost. On Pentecost morning, there were 120 people including the 12 Apostles.  The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday may also be called Eastertide..  This led to Rusalii becoming the Romanian language term for the feast, as well as the Neapolitan popular designation Pasca rusata ("rosey Easter"). BWV 172, in 1714 and Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt, BWV 68, in 1725. In other cases, Pentecost may be ignored as a holy day in these churches. Daniel Elder's 21st century piece, "Factus est Repente", for a cappella choir, was premiered in 2013. Olivier Messiaen composed an organ mass Messe de la Pentecôte in 1949/50. If, for example, it were the next day, it does not state that everyone who was present in chapter 1 was there again in chapter 2, though it would make sense to infer that they were. It symbolizes joy and the fire of the Holy Spirit. Home » Ask a Bible Teacher » Mary And Pentecost. All these devoted themselves with one accord to prayer, together with some women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers.... (there was a group of about 120 persons in the one place). The main sign of Pentecost in the West is the color red. The flat earth model theory has gained traction in recent years. , In German speaking and other Central European countries, and also in overseas congregations originating from these countries through migration, green branches are also traditionally used to decorate churches for Pentecost. No servile work was to be done. In the ancient Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Pentecost is one of the seven Major "Lord's Feasts". Further, Goethe records an old peasant proverb relating to Pentecost in his "Sankt-Rochus-Fest zu Bingen" And Mary, our dear Mother, continues to pray for us. To this day there exists a church built near the Mount of Olives that is said to be place of Mary’s “burial” and is venerated by the Eastern Orthodox Church. In some cases, red fans, or red handkerchiefs, are distributed to the congregation to be waved during the procession, etc. This group of visitors includes both Jews and "proselytes" (προσήλυτος, prosēlytos); sometimes translated as "converts to Judaism", proselyte referred to non-Jews who adhered fully to the Mosaic laws, including circumcision. Hymns such as Martin Luther's "Komm, Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott" (Come, Holy Spirit, God and Lord), Charles Wesley's "Spirit of Faith Come Down" and "Come Holy Ghost Our Hearts Inspire" or Hildegard von Bingen's "O Holy Spirit Root of Life" are popular. In France, following reactions to the implementation of the Journée de solidarité envers les personnes âgées, Pentecost Monday has been reestablished as a regular (not as a working) holiday on May 3, 2005.. , Similarly, a large two dimensional dove figure would be, and in some places still is, cut from wood, painted, and decorated with flowers, to be lowered over the congregation, particularly during the singing of the sequence hymn, or Veni Creator Spiritus. After all, they had all been gathered previously (Acts 1:13-14) in that ‘same?’ upper room, and since Peter had been speaking about the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies, it would make sense to infer that they were all regathered or had remained together in that room.  While those on whom the Spirit had descended were speaking in many languages, the Apostle Peter stood up with the eleven and proclaimed to the crowd that this event was the fulfillment of the prophecy. Other customs such as morris dancing and cheese rolling are also associated with Whitsun. So, we know that Mary was in the upper room on the previous occasion, but we can only deduce that the same people we present on the latter occasion as well. No servile work was to be done. He boasted of his victory over Israel, and we read, The king of Israel replied, “Tell him the one who puts on his battle gear should not boast like one who is taking it off” (1 Kings 20:11).2 The point is that one should not boast before his victory, but should wait until after.