We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Briefly, fresh (unexposed to fruit) gravid females (30 flies/ cage) were released into five oviposition cages and allowed to acclimatize for 30 min. . It is cosmopolitan in nature and reported to occur in several countries (Tandon and Verghese, 1985). The study was conducted in a 25 years old mango cv. The main effect of time interval (1, 2 and 3 days post SA treatment) was not significant for both oviposition punctures (P = 0.75) and eggs per puncture (P = 0.28) indicating all post SA treatments are equally effective. Gravid female fruit flies (15–20 days old, n = 30) were released into test cages and were allowed to interact with the fruit for 12 h in pair-wise comparisons in eight cages. (a) Catalase; (b) Peroxidase and (c) Polyphenoloxidase activity. (non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison test, (P = 0.007) [time spent]; P > 0.05 [entries]). GC/MS analysis confirmed the complete absence of volatiles viz., cis-ocimene and 3-carene in SA treated fruit. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. Received 2014 Sep 4; Accepted 2015 Sep 9. ABSTRACTThe oriental fruit ßy,Bactrocera dorsalisHendel, is one of the most destructive pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruits and vegetables. Fruit treated with distilled water were used as control. One unit of PPO was defined as the change in absorbance by 0.1 units per minute under conditions of the assay. Most of the flavonoids are growth inhibitors and cause abnormal development, growth inhibition and larval mortality . Phenolics as chemical barriers to female fruit fly, Kamala Jayanthi PD, Woodcock CM, Caulfield J, Birkett MA, Bruce TJA (2012). Demonstration and elucidation of resistance to the Caribbean fruit fly. The number of eggs laid per fruit was also significantly (0.5 mM: t = 5.15, df = 4, P = 0.01; 1.0 mM: t = 9.57, df = 4, P = 0.001; 2.0 mM: t = 5.49, df = 4, P = 0.01; 5 mM: t = 4.78, df = 4, P = 0.01) lower in SA treated fruit compared to controls (see Total phenols present in methanol extracts were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method . Error bars = Standard error of mean. . Of several insect pests that infest mango, the fruit losses caused by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) goes on unabated inspite of several management options [27–33]. All chemicals used were of analytical grade (≥99% purity). To identify a suitable oviposition site, insects mainly depend on host released volatile blends , particularly, during oviposition site selection . Phenolic content in the host fruit affects the fruit fly development [64, 65]. (a) The number of pupae formed; (b) The number of adults emerged. Though many studies have explored the role of SA in inducing host plant defenses against pathogens, limited attempts have been made to study its role against insects. (1987). (2009), Odorant receptors from the light brown Apple Moth (, Insect host location: a volatile situation, Tasin M, Lucchi A, Ioriatti C, Mraihi M, Decristofaro A, Boger Z, et al. It is native to large parts of tropical Asia, has become established over much of sub-Saharan Africa, and is often intercepted in the United States, sometimes triggering eradication programs. Temperature program for column was similar to that of the GC-FID analysis described above. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: A common mechanism in the antennal lobe? detected from mango fruits. The total phenol content was significantly higher (t = 7.38, df = 4, P = 0.0009) in treated fruit when compared to the control fruit (Fig 7a). x½=ÛrÛFï®ò?ðe¶È ohÀ³5µ¶O4'Û©Tíd`¸I
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j®¦MçUfÍiûïù±0Y! The results showed inhibition of catalase activity and an increase of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities in the treated fruit (unpaired t test, t = 4.01, df = 4, P = 0.01 [CAT]; t = 5.76, df = 4, P = 0.004 [POD]; t = 11.30, df = 4, P = 0.0002 [PPO]). We also thank Rajanna TS and Nagarathna M (IIHR, Bangalore) for their technical help with rearing of insects. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features Nevertheless, utilization of direct and indirect host-plant defense mechanisms and exploiting these plant signals for sustainable IPM is an area that yet to be explored in several perennial fruit crops. As a result of identification, three species were confirmed including Bactrocera carambolae, B. correcta and B. dorsalis. C'est une mouche des climats tropicaux chauds et humides qui pond ses œufs dans les fruits charnus de plus de 400 espèces de plantes sauvages ou cultivées, tant d'arbres fruitiers, notamment les mangu… Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel; Diptera: Tephritidae) is a notorious pest species known for causing immense economic losses due to its infestation of many types of commercial fruits and vegetables. Recently, emphasis is placed on the development of new preventative approaches that may minimize pesticide usage to achieve sustainable fruit fly management. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, herbivory, fruit fly, India, mango, phenolics. B. dorsalis has been seen in more than 200 kinds of fruit and nut plants, but the species lay eggs in mango, papaya, and avocado fruits most often. One unit of catalase converts 1μmol of H2O2 per minute. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the main effect of SA treatment was significant in terms of decreased oviposition punctures (F (2,20) = 47.60; P = <0.0001) and clutch size (F (2,20) = 45.81; P < 0.0001) relative to controls implying fruit that were treated with SA were significantly less attractive to B. dorsalis. Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the most devastating insect pests having a foremost influence on global agricultural products, effecting yield losses, and dropping the value and marketability of horticultural crops. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) ... B. dorsalis on mango. One salicylic acid treated along with one untreated mango fruit (n = 5 replicates per dose treatment) were exposed to gravid female B. dorsalis for oviposition to take place. This article describes the development of a protocol for post-harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis on mango using hot-water treatments. Each fruit was kept in a separate container. endobj
The occurrence of fruit flies including Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel is the most important factor hampering the production of the crop in Africa in general and Mozambique in particular (Ekesi et al. *Significantly different from SA treated and control arms; n.s. Total volatile production was estimated by the sum of all GC-FID peak areas in the chromatogram and individual compounds were quantified as relative percent area. (2013), The role of glucosinolates and the jasmonic acid pathway in resistance of, Erb M, Flors V, Karlen D, DeLange E, Planchamp C, D’Alessandro M, et al. First instar larvae of B. dorsalis (n = 100) obtained from a closed laboratory colony (maintained at 27 ± 1°C, 75 ± 2% RH and 14L: 10D h photoperiod) were placed in each fruit using fine camel-hair brush and allowed to settle. Application of SA on the fruit in field and exposing those fruit to fruit flies under laboratory conditions also exhibited similar trend, indicating SA treated fruit were less acceptable to B. dorsalis. The time spent and number of entries, significantly differed between untreated to treated fruit. The injector temperature was set at 260°C and all injections were made in split mode (1:5). Chemical elicitors viz., salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3) are well studied and known to induce both direct and indirect defenses against insect pests [6–8,10–12]. The observed increase in total phenol/flavonoid compounds would have been responsible for poor larval development and reduced adult emergence of B. dorsalis . Upon maturity, fruit were randomly collected (n = 8) and brought to the laboratory for oviposition assays. (2011), Chrysanthemum leaf epidermal surface morphology and antioxidant and defense enzyme activity in response to aphid infestation, Peng J, Xiaojun D, Jianhua H, Shihai J, Xuexia M, Yongping H (2004). The management of fruit flies from an Indian perspective (mainly for B. dorsalis) can be classified into two categories, namely pre- and post-harvest management prac-tices. The chromatogram showing differential expression of 3-carene and cis-ocimene. For this bioassay, SA treated and untreated fruit were placed in plastic containers with sterilized sand. The components were separated on VF-5 capillary column, (Varian, USA) (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D. Of several insect pests that infest mango, the fruit losses caused by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) goes on unabated inspite of several management options [27–33]. The extract was concentrated to get a final volume of 10 mL. The containers were kept at ambient conditions 27 ± 1°C, 75 ± 2% RH and 14L: 10D h photoperiod for 10–15 days to allow larval development and pupae formation. Bactrocera spp. Earlier studies report that salicylic acid treatment increased coumarins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignin concentration in plants [61–63]. Two plants were randomly selected for each treatment randomly and the whole tree was sprayed. 4 0 obj
Volatile samples were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until further use. After exposure, fruit were recovered from the cages and the numbers of punctures were counted. Error bars = Standard error of mean. To examine the influence of the exogenous application of SA on mango fruit and its effect on the oviposition behavior and development of the notorious mango pest, B. dorsalis, we employed a combination of choice and olfactometer bioassays to test the gravid female preference. KJPD is awarded funds through the national fellow project by Indian Council for Agricultural Research. Catalase activity  was determined with minute modifications by adding 0.1 mL of crude enzyme to 2.9 mL of 40mM H2O2 (dissolved with 50mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) as a substrate. Totapuri orchard of IIHR, Bangalore (12° 58’N; 77°35’E). Previous studies involving … Similarly, reduced oviposition by H. armigera was noticed in groundnut cultivars after jasmonic acid/ salicylic acid application . Herbivore-induced volatiles (HIVs) play an important role in plant defense by either attracting natural enemies of herbivores or by acting as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents/ attractants [7–9]. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. This species complex forms a group within the subgenus Bactrocera and the name may therefore be cited as Bactrocera ( Bactrocera ) dorsalis . In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. A potential biological control agent against this pest is the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). GC-FID analysis was carried out using a Varian-3800 Gas Chromatograph, equipped with a FID detector. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (2011), Kamala Jayanthi PD, Vivek K, Ravindra MA, Ravindra KV, Bakthavatsalam N, Verghese A, et al. Individual volatile compounds were identified by comparing the retention index that was calculated by using homologous series of n-alkanes (C5 to C32 procured from Sigma-Aldrich) as standard  and comparing the MS spectra with spectral libraries (Wiley and NIST-2007). (2014a), Specific volatile compounds from mango elicit oviposition in gravid, Electroantennographic bioassay as a screening tool for host plant volatiles, Schmelz EA, Carroll MJ, LeClere S, Phipps SM, Meredith J, Chourey PS, et al. Before volatile collection, glassware and aluminum plates were washed with liquid detergent, rinsed with distilled water and acetone, and then dried in an oven at 180°C for 2 h. Extraction of volatiles was carried out according to methods described by Kamala Jayanthi et al. The test samples (10 μl) were applied to a filter paper and the solvent was allowed to evaporate prior to placement in the treatment arms. The system consisted of a Varian-3800 Gas Chromatograph coupled to a Varian-4000 Ion-Trap mass spectra detector. Although its' name does not illicit much response here in Singapore, in countries such as the United States and Kenya, the mention of the Oriental fruit fly will send agricultural farmers, fruit vendors, immigration authorities fuming mad. The fruit peel was slightly cut open to facilitate introduction of larvae. Keywords Mango, Mangifera spp, Mangifera casturi, Mangifera lalijiwa, Bactrocera dorsalis, mango relative. 2 0 obj
In addition to its direct damage to fruits, the high quarantine status of the pest restricts the export of fruits and limits … Further studies on effect of SA on larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis revealed significant reduction in pupae formation and adult emergence when larvae were reared on SA treated fruit (Fig 3b). Each replicate involved two treated arms (SA treated fruit sample and untreated fruit sample) and two control arms (solvent blank). The Porapak Q columns used for volatiles collection were eluted with redistilled diethyl ether and heated at 132°C for 2 h under a stream of purified nitrogen to remove contaminants. Different concentrations of salicylic acid [0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 millimolar (mM)] were prepared in distilled hot water. The ion trap, transfer line and ion source temperatures were maintained at 200°C, 240°C and 210°C respectively. Repeated measures (mixed model) two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test (a) punctures (F = 6.86; edf = 20; P = 0.03) (b) Eggs per puncture (F = 130.20; edf = 20; P < 0.0001). Quantification of volatiles was performed using a single point external standard quantification method using authentic samples of standards . There is a need for in depth studies on possibility of exogenous application of SA for fruit fly management in mango at field level and to understand the role of this chemical elicitor in strengthening our current pest management programs. Perspex components were washed with Teepol solution, rinsed with 80% ethanol solution and distilled water, and left to air-dry. Performed the experiments: RMA. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Skelton AC, Cameron MM, Pickett JA, Birkett MA (2010). The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. PHYTOPHAGOUS insects use chemical cues emanating from plants to orient to their food hosts while plants ward off herbivory again through use of chemicals. Oviposition preference and field bioassays were subjected to paired t test. (a) Total phenols; (b) Total flavonoids. However, no significant difference was noticed between treated and control arms for number of entries made by gravid females (P > 0.05) (Fig 4b). It reproduces quicker than Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa 9 . After the exposure period, observations such as the number of oviposition punctures and number of eggs laid in to each puncture (clutch size) were recorded. As per literature, PO and PPO are involved in oxidation of phenolics to lignin and quinones that are toxic to larval growth and development. Such induced responses in plants are important components of pest management and can be triggered by external application of elicitors . Application of salicylic acid resulted in satisfactory mite control in Phaseolus vulgaris and enhanced yields . Results were expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a very destructive pest of fruit in areas where it occurs. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that mediates the phenylpropanoid pathway and is known to promote the release of many intermediary secondary metabolites and anti-nutritive compounds in plants [14, 20]. The number of punctures (Fig 1a) was significantly (0.5 mM: t = 7.59, df = 4, P = 0.002; 1.0 mM: t = 3.81, df = 4, P = 0.02; 2.0 mM: t = 11.49, df = 4, P = 0.0003; 5 mM: t = 6.89, df = 4, P = 0.002) different in SA treated fruits compared to their controls. Ten (n = 10) replicates were carried out. Post hoc analyses employing Bonferroni correction revealed that the numbers of oviposition punctures and eggs per puncture were significantly less in SA treated fruit irrespective of post SA treatment time intervals [1 day (oviposition punctures: t = 3.78, P<0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.67, P <0.001), 2 days (oviposition punctures: t = 3.67, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 2.86, P <0.05), 3 days (oviposition punctures: t = 4.50, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.20, P <0.01)] (Fig 2a and 2b). Damage caused by the fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (syn. Our study clearly indicates that the exogenous application of SA on to mango fruit resulted in reduced oviposition by Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis. After 1 min, 2 mL of 1M NaOH was added and diluted to 10 mL with double distilled water and mixed thoroughly. Accordingly, the number of pupae formed in treated and control fruit differed significantly (t = 11.93, df = 6, P = 0.0001) (Fig 6a). Thus, in the present study, SA application not only reduced the attraction of host fruit to fruit fly, B. dorsalis but also affected the larval development and subsequent adult emergence indicating SA treatment enhances mango tolerance to the Oriental fruit fly. Additionally, the effect of SA is well studied in herbaceous plants, but, studies on the effect of SA on woody plants are meager. Conceived and designed the experiments: KJPD RMA. The concentration of volatile compounds equivalent to Dodecanal used as standard compound. The SA sprayed fruit along with unsprayed fruit were placed in-to cages (30 × 30 × 30 cm) for the oviposition assays. A hand held atomizer (1 L capacity, Kisan Agri Sprayer, Mumbai, India) was used for uniform application of different doses on fruit. One such strategy is the utilization of elicitors in priming and/or increasing or decreasing the production of certain volatile compounds upon insect attack . 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The Caribbean fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis on mango using hot-water treatments development, inhibition! Were placed in plastic containers containing sterilized sand to allow pupation is to... A member of the glass vessel replicates were carried out using a customized air entrainment system a distance were... Aluminum plate clipped to a Varian-4000 Ion-Trap mass spectra detector fruit along with unsprayed were., Schroeder WJ, Howard DF, Hatton TT, et al resistance against H. armigera 73. ( Hendel ), is one of the manuscript four fruit (.... Attention is the fruit were sprayed in the laboratory with SA continuously for four days ( one per. Usage to achieve sustainable fruit fly into the central chamber through a hole in present!